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Taiping Zhang

Abstract

A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model.

The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations.

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Zhonghai Jin, Thomas P. Charlock, Ken Rutledge, Glenn Cota, Ralph Kahn, Jens Redemann, Taiping Zhang, David A. Rutan, and Fred Rose

Abstract

Spectral and broadband radiances and irradiances (fluxes) were measured from surface, airborne, and spaceborne platforms in the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) campaign. The radiation data obtained on the 4 clear days over ocean during CLAMS are analyzed here with the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Radiative Transfer (COART) model. The model is successively compared with observations of broadband fluxes and albedos near the ocean surface from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) sea platform and a low-level OV-10 aircraft, of near-surface spectral albedos from COVE and OV-10, of broadband radiances at multiple angles and inferred top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes from CERES, and of spectral radiances at multiple angles from Airborne Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), or “AirMISR,” at 20-km altidude. The radiation measurements from different platforms are shown to be consistent with each other and with model results. The discrepancies between the model and observations at the surface are less than 10 W m−2 for downwelling and 2 W m−2 for upwelling fluxes. The model–observation discrepancies for shortwave ocean albedo are less than 8%; some discrepancies in spectral albedo are larger but less than 20%. The discrepancies between low-altitude aircraft and surface measurements are somewhat larger than those between the model and the surface measurements; the former are due to the effects of differences in height, aircraft pitch and roll, and the noise of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric and oceanic properties. The discrepancy between the model and the CERES observations for the upwelling radiance is 5.9% for all angles; this is reduced to 4.9% if observations within 15° of the sun-glint angle are excluded.

The measurements and model agree on the principal impacts that ocean optical properties have on upwelling radiation at low levels in the atmosphere. Wind-driven surface roughness significantly affects the upwelling radiances measured by aircraft and satellites at small sun-glint angles, especially in the near-infrared channel of MISR. Intercomparisons of various measurements and the model show that most of the radiation observations in CLAMS are robust, and that the coupled radiative transfer model used here accurately treats scattering and absorption processes in both the air and the water.

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Shashi K. Gupta, David P. Kratz, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Anne C. Wilber, Taiping Zhang, and Victor E. Sothcott

Abstract

An improvement was developed and tested for surface longwave flux algorithms used in the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System processing based on lessons learned during the validation of global results of those algorithms. The algorithms involved showed significant overestimation of downward longwave flux for certain regions, especially dry–arid regions during hot times of the day. The primary cause of this overestimation was identified and the algorithms were modified to (i) detect meteorological conditions that would produce an overestimation, and (ii) apply a correction when the overestimation occurred. The application of this correction largely eliminated the positive bias that was observed in earlier validation studies. Comparisons of validation results before and after the application of correction are presented.

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