Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Takeshi Kinoshita x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Takuji Waseda, Takeshi Kinoshita, and Hitoshi Tamura

Abstract

The evolution of a random directional wave in deep water was studied in a laboratory wave tank (50 m long, 10 m wide, 5 m deep) utilizing a directional wave generator. A number of experiments were conducted, changing the various spectral parameters (wave steepness 0.05 < ε < 0.11, with directional spreading up to 36° and frequency bandwidth 0.2 < δk/k < 0.6). The wave evolution was studied by an array of wave wires distributed down the tank. As the spectral parameters were altered, the wave height statistics change. Without any wave directionality, the occurrence of waves exceeding twice the significant wave height (the freak wave) increases as the frequency bandwidth narrows and steepness increases, due to quasi-resonant wave–wave interaction. However, the probability of an extreme wave rapidly reduces as the directional bandwidth broadens. The effective Benjamin–Feir index (BFIeff) is introduced, extending the BFI (the relative magnitude of nonlinearity and dispersion) to incorporate the effect of directionality, and successfully parameterizes the observed occurrence of freak waves in the tank. Analysis of the high-resolution hindcast wave field of the northwest Pacific reveals that such a directionally confined wind sea with high extreme wave probability is rare and corresponds mostly to a swell–wind sea mixed condition. Therefore, extreme wave occurrence in the sea as a result of quasi-resonant wave–wave interaction is a rare event that occurs only when the wind sea directionality is extremely narrow.

Full access
Takuji Waseda, Takeshi Kinoshita, and Hitoshi Tamura

Abstract

Recent experimental study of the evolution of random directional gravity waves in deep water provides new insight into the nature of the spectral evolution of the ocean waves and the relative significance of resonant and quasi-resonant wave interaction. When the directional angle containing half the total energy is broader than ∼20°, the spectrum evolves following the energy transfer that can be described by the four-wave resonant interaction alone. In contrast, in the case of a directionally confined spectrum, the effect of quasi-resonant wave–wave interaction becomes important, and the wave system becomes unstable. When the temporal change of the spectral shape due to quasi resonance becomes irreversible owing to energetic breaking dissipation, the spectrum rapidly downshifts. Under such extreme conditions, the likelihood of a freak wave is high.

Full access
Naoya Suzuki, Takuji Waseda, Mark A. Donelan, and Takeshi Kinoshita

Abstract

There exists considerable disagreement among the observed values of the drag coefficient C D. To develop a model of C D, the wind stress generally will be calculated from the eddy correlation method. A buoy is suitable to measure the wind stress in many sea surface conditions. However, the motion correction is very difficult because the anemometer measures the wind components, including the motion of the buoy. In this study, as a first approach, the motion of a prototype buoy system with a three-axis sonic anemometer and a six-axis motion sensor installed in the small-size GPS observation buoy was investigated. The wave tank is in the ocean engineering basin of the Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan. The imposed conditions were wave periods from 1.1 to 2.5 s; wind speeds of 0, 2, and 5 m s−1; and the wave spectrum was either regular or irregular. The motion of the buoy was measured in 120 cases. For all the wave periods and without wind, the wind velocity measured by the sonic anemometer and the velocity of the anemometer motion calculated from the motion sensor data showed good agreement. Also, in the condition with wind speeds of 2 and 5 m s−1, the motion-corrected wind velocity, obtained by deducting the velocity of the anemometer motion from the wind velocity measured by the anemometer, yielded the true wind velocity with better-than-average (4.3%) accuracy. The friction velocity from corrected wind velocity components shows agreement with the friction velocity measured from a fixed sonic anemometer within expected intrinsic error. The buoy system is expected to be able to measure the wind stress in the field. The next stage is to do comprehensive field tests.

Full access