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Tsutomu Takahashi and Tatsuo Endoh

Abstract

As a basic experiment in warm cloud electrification, evaporating large drops were studied as they floated in an ion-rich environment in a vertical wind tunnel. The drops were found to acquire a positive charge during their evaporation, a result in agreement with previous studies by Takahashi (1973).

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Tsuneya Takahashi, Chikara Inoue, Yoshinori Furukawa, Tatsuo Endoh, and Renji Naruse

Abstract

A vertical wind tunnel using an artificially generated supercooled cloud was constructed to study snowfall processes. It is 18 m high and operates to a temperature as low as −25°C. Ultrasonic atomizers supply the supercooled water droplets, and ice crystals are generated by an automated adiabatic expansion of compressed air. The system operation is preprogrammed. Snowfall is sustained for about 20 min after injection of the seed ice crystals. Ice crystals of various forms and sizes including dendritic crystals up to 2 mm in diameter, and snowflakes more than 4 mm in diameter were successfully grown in the tunnel.

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Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Tatsuo Endoh, Tomomi Yamada, Kazuhisa Tsuboki, Yoshihiro Tachibana, and Gorow Wakahama

Abstract

A best-fit power-law relationship (Z = 427 R 1.09) between 1-minute integrated averages of snowfall rate (R) and radar reflectivity factor (Z) was determined on the basis of observations made by using high sensitivity snow gauges (accuracy 0.03 mm h−1) and a radar (wavelength 3.2 cm, beamwidth 1.1°) of three 1987 Sapporo snowstorms. The relationship Z = 554R 0.88, using 30-minute integrated averages of Z and R, produced the best radar estimate of total snowfall. The ratio of the estimated to the observed amount of snowfall decreased with increasing density of new fallen snow ρ, the ratio roughly equaling 1, when ρ ≈ 0.05 g cm−3.

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