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John T. Sullivan, Thomas J. McGee, Russell DeYoung, Laurence W. Twigg, Grant K. Sumnicht, Denis Pliutau, Travis Knepp, and William Carrion

Abstract

During a 2-week period in May 2014, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center Tropospheric Ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) was situated near the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL) and made simultaneous measurements for a continuous 15-h observation period in which six separate ozonesondes were launched to provide reference ozone profiles. Although each of these campaign-ready lidars has very different transmitter and receiver components, they produced very similar ozone profiles, which were mostly within 10% of each other and the ozonesondes. The observed column averages as compared to the ozonesondes also agree well and are within 8% of each other. A robust uncertainty analysis was performed, and the results indicate that there is no statistically significant systematic bias between the TROPOZ and LMOL instruments. With the extended measurements and ozonesonde launches, this intercomparison has yielded an in-depth evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the two new lidars. This intercomparison is also the first (to the best of the authors’ knowledge) reported measurement intercomparison of two ground-based tropospheric ozone lidar systems within the United States.

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Thomas J. Sullivan, James S. Ellis, Connee S. Foster, Kevin T. Foster, Ronald L. Baskett, John S. Nasstrom, and Walter W. Schalk III

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a centralized federal project for assessing atmospheric releases of hazardous materials in real time. Since ARAC began making assessments in 1974, the project has responded to over 60 domestic and international incidents. ARAC can model radiological accidents in the United States within 30 to 90 min, using its operationally robust, three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, extensive geophysical and dose-factor databases, meteorological data acquisition systems, and experienced staff. Although it was originally conceived and developed as an emergency response and assessment service for providing dose-assessment calculations after nuclear accidents, it has proven to be an extremely adaptable system, capable of being modified to respond also to nonradiological hazardous releases. In 1991, ARAC responded to three major events: the oil fires in Kuwait, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and an herbicide spill into the upper Sacramento River in California. Modeling the atmospheric effects of these events added significantly to the range of problems that ARAC can address and demonstrated that the system can be adapted to assess and respond to concurrent, multiple, unrelated events at different locations.

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Edward G. Patton, Thomas W. Horst, Peter P. Sullivan, Donald H. Lenschow, Steven P. Oncley, William O. J. Brown, Sean P. Burns, Alex B. Guenther, Andreas Held, Thomas Karl, Shane D. Mayor, Luciana V. Rizzo, Scott M. Spuler, Jielun Sun, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Eugene J. Allwine, Steven L. Edburg, Brian K. Lamb, Roni Avissar, Ronald J. Calhoun, Jan Kleissl, William J. Massman, Kyaw Tha Paw U, and Jeffrey C. Weil

The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) took place in spring 2007 and is the third in the series of Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) experiments. The HATS experiments have been instrumental in testing and developing subfilterscale (SFS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES) of planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. The CHATS campaign took place in a deciduous walnut orchard near Dixon, California, and was designed to examine the impacts of vegetation on SFS turbulence. Measurements were collected both prior to and following leafout to capture the impact of leaves on the turbulence, stratification, and scalar source/sink distribution. CHATS utilized crosswind arrays of fast-response instrumentation to investigate the impact of the canopy-imposed distribution of momentum extraction and scalar sources on SFS transport of momentum, energy, and three scalars. To directly test and link with PBL parameterizations of canopy-modified turbulent exchange, CHATS also included a 30-m profile tower instrumented with turbulence instrumentation, fast and slow chemical sensors, aerosol samplers, and radiation instrumentation. A highresolution scanning backscatter lidar characterized the turbulence structure above and within the canopy; a scanning Doppler lidar, mini sodar/radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and a new helicopter-observing platform provided details of the PBL-scale flow. Ultimately, the CHATS dataset will lead to improved parameterizations of energy and scalar transport to and from vegetation, which are a critical component of global and regional land, atmosphere, and chemical models. This manuscript presents an overview of the experiment, documents the regime sampled, and highlights some preliminary key findings.

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John T. Sullivan, Timothy Berkoff, Guillaume Gronoff, Travis Knepp, Margaret Pippin, Danette Allen, Laurence Twigg, Robert Swap, Maria Tzortziou, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Glenn M. Wolfe, James Flynn, Sally E. Pusede, Laura M. Judd, William Moore, Barry D. Baker, Jay Al-Saadi, and Thomas J. McGee

Abstract

Coastal regions have historically represented a significant challenge for air quality investigations because of water–land boundary transition characteristics and a paucity of measurements available over water. Prior studies have identified the formation of high levels of ozone over water bodies, such as the Chesapeake Bay, that can potentially recirculate back over land to significantly impact populated areas. Earth-observing satellites and forecast models face challenges in capturing the coastal transition zone where small-scale meteorological dynamics are complex and large changes in pollutants can occur on very short spatial and temporal scales. An observation strategy is presented to synchronously measure pollutants “over land” and “over water” to provide a more complete picture of chemical gradients across coastal boundaries for both the needs of state and local environmental management and new remote sensing platforms. Intensive vertical profile information from ozone lidar systems and ozonesondes, obtained at two main sites, one over land and the other over water, are complemented by remote sensing and in situ observations of air quality from ground-based, airborne (both personned and unpersonned), and shipborne platforms. These observations, coupled with reliable chemical transport simulations, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC), are expected to lead to a more fully characterized and complete land–water interaction observing system that can be used to assess future geostationary air quality instruments, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), and current low-Earth-orbiting satellites, such as the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5-P) with its Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI).

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J. M. Flores, G. Bourdin, O. Altaratz, M. Trainic, N. Lang-Yona, E. Dzimban, S. Steinau, F. Tettich, S. Planes, D. Allemand, S. Agostini, B. Banaigs, E. Boissin, E. Boss, E. Douville, D. Forcioli, P. Furla, P. E. Galand, M. B. Sullivan, É. Gilson, F. Lombard, C. Moulin, S. Pesant, J. Poulain, S. Reynaud, S. Romac, S. Sunagawa, O. P. Thomas, R. Troublé, C. de Vargas, R. Vega Thurber, C. R. Voolstra, P. Wincker, D. Zoccola, C. Bowler, G. Gorsky, Y. Rudich, A. Vardi, and I. Koren

Abstract

Marine aerosols play a significant role in the global radiative budget, in clouds’ processes, and in the chemistry of the marine atmosphere. There is a critical need to better understand their production mechanisms, composition, chemical properties, and the contribution of ocean-derived biogenic matter to their mass and number concentration. Here we present an overview of a new dataset of in situ measurements of marine aerosols conducted over the 2.5-yr Tara Pacific Expedition over 110,000 km across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Preliminary results are presented here to describe the new dataset that will be built using this novel set of measurements. It will characterize marine aerosols properties in detail and will open a new window to study the marine aerosol link to the water properties and environmental conditions.

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Mary C. Barth, Christopher A. Cantrell, William H. Brune, Steven A. Rutledge, James H. Crawford, Heidi Huntrieser, Lawrence D. Carey, Donald MacGorman, Morris Weisman, Kenneth E. Pickering, Eric Bruning, Bruce Anderson, Eric Apel, Michael Biggerstaff, Teresa Campos, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Ronald Cohen, John Crounse, Douglas A. Day, Glenn Diskin, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Charity Garland, Brian Heikes, Shawn Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, L. Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Timothy Lang, Michael Lichtenstern, Tomas Mikoviny, Benjamin Nault, Daniel O’Sullivan, Laura L. Pan, Jeff Peischl, Ilana Pollack, Dirk Richter, Daniel Riemer, Thomas Ryerson, Hans Schlager, Jason St. Clair, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Andrew Weinheimer, Paul Wennberg, Armin Wisthaler, Paul J. Wooldridge, and Conrad Ziegler

Abstract

The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment produced an exceptional dataset on thunderstorms, including their dynamical, physical, and electrical structures and their impact on the chemical composition of the troposphere. The field experiment gathered detailed information on the chemical composition of the inflow and outflow regions of midlatitude thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, west Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the upper-tropospheric convective plume. These data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, chemistry in the upper troposphere that is affected by the convection, and related source characterization of the three sampling regions. DC3 also documented biomass-burning plumes and the interactions of these plumes with deep convection.

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