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Till M. Baumann, Igor V. Polyakov, Andrey V. Pnyushkov, Robert Rember, Vladimir V. Ivanov, Matthew B. Alkire, Ilona Goszczko, and Eddy C. Carmack

Abstract

The Eurasian Basin (EB) of the Arctic Ocean is subject to substantial seasonality. We here use data collected between 2013 and 2015 from six moorings across the continental slope in the eastern EB and identify three domains, each with its own unique seasonal cycle: 1) The upper ocean (<100 m), with seasonal temperature and salinity differences of Δθ = 0.16°C and ΔS = 0.17, is chiefly driven by the seasonal sea ice cycle. 2) The upper-slope domain is characterized by the influence of a hydrographic front that spans the water column around the ~750-m isobath. The domain features a strong temperature and moderate salinity seasonality (Δθ = 1.4°C; ΔS = 0.06), which is traceable down to ~600-m depth. Probable cause of this signal is a combination of along-slope advection of signals by the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, local wind-driven upwelling, and a cross-slope shift of the front. 3) The lower-slope domain, located offshore of the front, with seasonality in temperature and salinity mainly confined to the halocline (Δθ = 0.83°C; ΔS = 0.11; ~100–200 m). This seasonal cycle can be explained by a vertical isopycnal displacement (ΔZ ~ 36 m), arguably as a baroclinic response to sea level changes. Available long-term oceanographic records indicate a recent amplification of the seasonal cycle within the halocline layer, possibly associated with the erosion of the halocline. This reduces the halocline’s ability to isolate the ocean surface layer and sea ice from the underlying Atlantic Water heat with direct implications for the evolution of Arctic sea ice cover and climate.

Open access
Igor V. Polyakov, Tom P. Rippeth, Ilker Fer, Matthew B. Alkire, Till M. Baumann, Eddy C. Carmack, Randi Ingvaldsen, Vladimir V. Ivanov, Markus Janout, Sigrid Lind, Laurie Padman, Andrey V. Pnyushkov, and Robert Rember

Abstract

A 15-yr duration record of mooring observations from the eastern (>70°E) Eurasian Basin (EB) of the Arctic Ocean is used to show and quantify the recently increased oceanic heat flux from intermediate-depth (~150–900 m) warm Atlantic Water (AW) to the surface mixed layer and sea ice. The upward release of AW heat is regulated by the stability of the overlying halocline, which we show has weakened substantially in recent years. Shoaling of the AW has also contributed, with observations in winter 2017–18 showing AW at only 80 m depth, just below the wintertime surface mixed layer, the shallowest in our mooring records. The weakening of the halocline for several months at this time implies that AW heat was linked to winter convection associated with brine rejection during sea ice formation. This resulted in a substantial increase of upward oceanic heat flux during the winter season, from an average of 3–4 W m−2 in 2007–08 to >10 W m−2 in 2016–18. This seasonal AW heat loss in the eastern EB is equivalent to a more than a twofold reduction of winter ice growth. These changes imply a positive feedback as reduced sea ice cover permits increased mixing, augmenting the summer-dominated ice-albedo feedback.

Open access