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Ivan Mammarella, Samuli Launiainen, Tiia Gronholm, Petri Keronen, Jukka Pumpanen, Üllar Rannik, and Timo Vesala

Abstract

In this study the high-frequency loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes, measured by a closed-path eddy covariance system, were studied, and the related correction factors through the cospectral transfer function method were calculated. As already reported by other studies, it was found that the age of the sampling tube is a relevant factor to consider when estimating the spectral correction of water vapor fluxes. Moreover, a time-dependent relationship between the characteristic time constant (or response time) for water vapor and the ambient relative humidity was disclosed. Such dependence is negligible when the sampling tube is new, but it becomes important already when the tube is only 1 yr old and increases with the age of the tube. With a new sampling tube, the correction of water vapor flux measurements over a Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Finland, amounted on average to 7%. After 4 yr the correction increased strongly, ranging from 10%–15% during the summer to 30%–40% in wintertime, when the relative humidity is typically high. For this site the effective correction improved the long-term energy and water balance.

Results suggest that the relative humidity effect on high-frequency loss of water vapor flux should be taken into account and that the effective transfer function should be estimated experimentally at least once per year. On the other hand, this high correction can be avoided by a correct choice and periodic maintenance of the eddy covariance system tube, for example, by cleaning or changing it at least once per year.

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Anca Gaman, Üllar Rannik, Pasi Aalto, Toivo Pohja, Erkki Siivola, Markku Kulmala, and Timo Vesala

Abstract

A novel relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system for aerosol particle flux measurement has been developed and tested. The system consisted of a fast-response sonic anemometer, a flow system, and software for operating the valves and the concentration analysis system. The prototype was used during September–October 2001 at the SMEAR II station of the University of Helsinki. The REA system was operated with a varying threshold for valve switching determined by the running mean standard deviation of the vertical wind speed. Such a varying threshold made the flux proportionality coefficient β independent of observation conditions. Using temperature as a tracer, β was determined to be 0.392 ± 0.002. The system was validated by comparing the carbon dioxide fluxes estimated by REA with the ones measured by the eddy covariance technique. The system was used subsequently for flux measurements of 50-nm aerosol particles and deposition velocity estimation. Observed deposition velocities over a pine forest during the autumn season were on the average 0.43 ± 0.06 (standard error) cm s−1, which is higher than the earlier model estimates for forest canopies. Deposition velocity was dependent on the turbulence level and stability. To the authors' knowledge, no direct experimental data of deposition velocities on this size range is available in the literature.

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Annika Nordbo, Pekka Kekäläinen, Erkki Siivola, Ivan Mammarella, Jussi Timonen, and Timo Vesala

Abstract

Adsorption and desorption (together called sorption) processes in sampling tubes and filters of eddy-covariance stations cause attenuation and delay of water vapor signals, leading to an underestimation of water vapor fluxes by tens of percent. The aim of this work was (i) to quantify the effects on sorption in filters and tubes of humidity, flow rate, and dirtiness and (ii) to test a recently introduced sorption model that facilitates correction of fluxes. Laboratory measurements on the transport of water vapor pulses through tubes and filters were carried out, and eddy-covariance field measurements were also used.

In the laboratory measurements, the effects of sorption processes were evident, and filters caused a similar attenuation and delay of the signal as tubes. Filters could have a larger impact than a long tube, whereas the flow rate had a much smaller impact on the flux loss than the sorption processes (Reynolds numbers 2120–3360). The sorption model represented well the water vapor pulses in a wide range of conditions. As for the field measurements, the transfer function (TF) derived from the sorption model represented well the observations. Fitting parameters were found to depend strongly on the relative humidity and correlate with the signal delay. Having a more complex shape, TF of the sorption model represented much better the measured TFs than, for example, a Lorentzian or adjusted Gaussian TF, leading on average to a 4% unit difference in the flux corrections. Use of this more complex TF is recommended and its implementation is assisted by the codes provided in .

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Jarkko T. Koskinen, Jani Poutiainen, David M. Schultz, Sylvain Joffre, Jarmo Koistinen, Elena Saltikoff, Erik Gregow, Heikki Turtiainen, Walter F. Dabberdt, Juhani Damski, Noora Eresmaa, Sabine Göke, Otto Hyvärinen, Leena Järvi, Ari Karppinen, Janne Kotro, Timo Kuitunen, Jaakko Kukkonen, Markku Kulmala, Dmitri Moisseev, Pertti Nurmi, Heikki Pohjola, Pirkko Pylkkö, Timo Vesala, and Yrjö Viisanen

Abstract

The Finnish Meteorological Institute and Vaisala have established a mesoscale weather observational network in southern Finland. The Helsinki Testbed is an open research and quasi-operational program designed to provide new information on observing systems and strategies, mesoscale weather phenomena, urban and regional modeling, and end-user applications in a high-latitude (~60°N) coastal environment. The Helsinki Testbed and related programs feature several components: observing system design and implementation, small-scale data assimilation, nowcasting and short-range numerical weather prediction, public service, and commercial development of applications. Specifically, the observing instrumentation focuses on meteorological observations of meso-gamma-scale phenomena that are often too small to be detected adequately by traditional observing networks. In particular, more than 40 telecommunication masts (40 that are 120 m high and one that is 300 m high) are instrumented at multiple heights. Other instrumentation includes one operational radio sounding (and occasional supplemental ones), ceilometers, aerosol-particle and trace-gas instrumentation on an urban flux-measurement tower, a wind profiler, and four Doppler weather radars, three of which have dual-polarimetric capability. The Helsinki Testbed supports the development and testing of new observational instruments, systems, and methods during coordinated field experiments, such as the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). Currently, the Helsinki Testbed Web site typically receives more than 450,000 weekly visits, and more than 600 users have registered to use historical data records. This article discusses the three different phases of development and associated activities of the Helsinki Testbed from network development and observational campaigns, development of the local analysis and prediction system, and testing of applications for commercial services. Finally, the Helsinki Testbed is evaluated based on previously published criteria, indicating both successes and shortcomings of this approach.

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Dennis Baldocchi, Eva Falge, Lianhong Gu, Richard Olson, David Hollinger, Steve Running, Peter Anthoni, Ch. Bernhofer, Kenneth Davis, Robert Evans, Jose Fuentes, Allen Goldstein, Gabriel Katul, Beverly Law, Xuhui Lee, Yadvinder Malhi, Tilden Meyers, William Munger, Walt Oechel, K. T. Paw U, Kim Pilegaard, H. P. Schmid, Riccardo Valentini, Shashi Verma, Timo Vesala, Kell Wilson, and Steve Wofsy

FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes temperate conifer and broadleaved (deciduous and evergreen) forests, tropical and boreal forests, crops, grasslands, chaparral, wetlands, and tundra. Sites exist on five continents and their latitudinal distribution ranges from 70°N to 30°S.

FLUXNET has several primary functions. First, it provides infrastructure for compiling, archiving, and distributing carbon, water, and energy flux measurement, and meteorological, plant, and soil data to the science community. (Data and site information are available online at the FLUXNET Web site, http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET/.) Second, the project supports calibration and flux intercomparison activities. This activity ensures that data from the regional networks are intercomparable. And third, FLUXNET supports the synthesis, discussion, and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops, and visiting scientists. The overarching goal is to provide information for validating computations of net primary productivity, evaporation, and energy absorption that are being generated by sensors mounted on the NASA Terra satellite.

Data being compiled by FLUXNET are being used to quantify and compare magnitudes and dynamics of annual ecosystem carbon and water balances, to quantify the response of stand-scale carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities to controlling biotic and abiotic factors, and to validate a hierarchy of soil–plant–atmosphere trace gas exchange models. Findings so far include 1) net CO2 exchange of temperate broadleaved forests increases by about 5.7 g C m−2 day−1 for each additional day that the growing season is extended; 2) the sensitivity of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to sunlight doubles if the sky is cloudy rather than clear; 3) the spectrum of CO2 flux density exhibits peaks at timescales of days, weeks, and years, and a spectral gap exists at the month timescale; 4) the optimal temperature of net CO2 exchange varies with mean summer temperature; and 5) stand age affects carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities.

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Sara H. Knox, Robert B. Jackson, Benjamin Poulter, Gavin McNicol, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Zhen Zhang, Gustaf Hugelius, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Marielle Saunois, Dario Papale, Housen Chu, Trevor F. Keenan, Dennis Baldocchi, Margaret S. Torn, Ivan Mammarella, Carlo Trotta, Mika Aurela, Gil Bohrer, David I. Campbell, Alessandro Cescatti, Samuel Chamberlain, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Eugenie Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Daniele Gasbarra, Ignacio Goded, Mathias Goeckede, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Takashi Hirano, David Y. Hollinger, Hiroki Iwata, Minseok Kang, Janina Klatt, Ken W. Krauss, Lars Kutzbach, Annalea Lohila, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Asko Noormets, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Hans Peter Schmid, Narasinha Shurpali, Oliver Sonnentag, Angela C. I. Tang, Masahito Ueyama, Rodrigo Vargas, Timo Vesala, Eric J. Ward, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Georg Wohlfahrt, and Donatella Zona

Abstract

This paper describes the formation of, and initial results for, a new FLUXNET coordination network for ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) measurements at 60 sites globally, organized by the Global Carbon Project in partnership with other initiatives and regional flux tower networks. The objectives of the effort are presented along with an overview of the coverage of eddy covariance (EC) CH4 flux measurements globally, initial results comparing CH4 fluxes across the sites, and future research directions and needs. Annual estimates of net CH4 fluxes across sites ranged from −0.2 ± 0.02 g C m–2 yr–1 for an upland forest site to 114.9 ± 13.4 g C m–2 yr–1 for an estuarine freshwater marsh, with fluxes exceeding 40 g C m–2 yr–1 at multiple sites. Average annual soil and air temperatures were found to be the strongest predictor of annual CH4 flux across wetland sites globally. Water table position was positively correlated with annual CH4 emissions, although only for wetland sites that were not consistently inundated throughout the year. The ratio of annual CH4 fluxes to ecosystem respiration increased significantly with mean site temperature. Uncertainties in annual CH4 estimates due to gap-filling and random errors were on average ±1.6 g C m–2 yr–1 at 95% confidence, with the relative error decreasing exponentially with increasing flux magnitude across sites. Through the analysis and synthesis of a growing EC CH4 flux database, the controls on ecosystem CH4 fluxes can be better understood, used to inform and validate Earth system models, and reconcile differences between land surface model- and atmospheric-based estimates of CH4 emissions.

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