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Dan Li, Ting Sun, Maofeng Liu, Linlin Wang, and Zhiqiu Gao

Abstract

The interaction between urban heat islands (UHIs) and heat waves (HWs) is studied using measurements collected at two towers in the Beijing, China, metropolitan area and an analytical model. Measurements show that 1) the positive interaction between UHIs and HWs not only exists at the surface but also persists to higher levels (up to ~70 m) and 2) the urban wind speed is enhanced by HWs during daytime but reduced during nighttime as compared with its rural counterpart. A steady-state advection–diffusion model coupled to the surface energy balance equation is then employed to understand the implication of changes in wind speed on UHIs, which reveals that the observed changes in wind speed positively contribute to the interaction between UHIs and HWs in both daytime and nighttime. The vertical structure of the positive interaction between UHIs and HWs is thus likely an outcome resulting from a combination of changes in the surface energy balance and wind profile.

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Ying Sun, Siyan Dong, Ting Hu, Xuebin Zhang, and Peter Stott
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Wanshu Nie, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Guangheng Ni, and Ting Sun

Abstract

Anthropogenic heat is an important component of the urban energy budgets that can affect land surface and atmospheric boundary layer processes. Representation of anthropogenic heat in numerical climate modeling systems is therefore important when simulating urban meteorology and climate and has the potential to improve weather forecasts, climate process studies, and energy demand analysis. Here, spatiotemporally dynamic anthropogenic heat data estimated by the Building Effects Parameterization and Building Energy Model (BEP-BEM) are incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model system to investigate its impact on simulation of summertime rainfall in Beijing, China. Simulations of four local rainfall events with and without anthropogenic heat indicate that anthropogenic heat leads to increased rainfall over the urban area. For all four events, anthropogenic heat emission increases sensible heat flux, enhances mixing and turbulent energy transport, lifts PBL height, increases dry static energy, and destabilizes the atmosphere in urban areas through thermal perturbation and strong upward motion during the prestorm period, resulting in enhanced convergence during the major rainfall period. Intensified rainfall leads to greater atmospheric dry-down during the storm and a higher poststorm LCL.

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Ying Sun, Siyan Dong, Ting Hu, Xuebin Zhang, and Peter Stott
Open access
Ying Sun, Ting Hu, Xuebin Zhang, Hui Wan, Peter Stott, and Chunhui Lu
Open access
Ying Sun, Lianchun Song, Hong Yin, Botao Zhou, Ting Hu, Xuebin Zhang, and Peter Stott
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Lidou Huyan, Jianping Li, Sen Zhao, Cheng Sun, Di Dong, Ting Liu, and Yufei Zhao

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between the 1000–850-hPa layer perturbation potential energy (LPPE) as the difference in local potential energy between the actual state and the reference state and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using reanalysis and observational datasets. The EASM is closely related to the first-order moment term of LPPE (LPPE1) from the preceding March to the boreal summer over three key regions: the eastern Indian Ocean, the subtropical central Pacific, and midlatitude East Asia. The LPPE1 pattern (−, +, +), with negative values over the eastern Indian Ocean, positive values over the subtropical central Pacific, and positive values over East Asia, corresponds to negative LPPE1 anomalies over the south of the EASM region but positive LPPE1 anomalies over the north of the EASM region, which lead to an anomalous downward branch over the southern region but an upward branch over the northern region. The anomalous vertical motion affects the local meridional circulation over East Asia that leads to a southwesterly wind anomaly over East Asia (south of 30°N) at 850 hPa and anomalous downward motion over 100°–120°E (along 25°–35°N), resulting in a stronger EASM, more kinetic energy over the EASM region, and less boreal summer rainfall in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley (24°–36°N, 90°–125°E). These LPPE1 anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean and subtropical central Pacific appear to be connected to changes in local sea surface temperature through the release of latent heat.

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Zexia Duan, C S B Grimmond, Chloe Y. Gao, Ting Sun, Changwei Liu, Linlin Wang, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao

Abstract

Quantitative knowledge of the water and energy exchanges in agroecosystems is vital for irrigation management and modeling crop production. In this study, the seasonal and annual variabilities of evapotranspiration (ET) and energy exchanges were investigated under two different crop environments – flooded and aerobic soil conditions – using three years (June 2014 to May 2017) of eddy covariance observations over a rice–wheat rotation in eastern China. Across the whole rice-wheat rotation, the average daily ET rate in the rice paddies and wheat fields was 3.6 mm d–1 and 2.4 mm d–1, respectively. The average seasonal ET was 473 and 387 mm for rice and wheat fields, indicating a higher water consumption for rice than for wheat. Averaging for the three cropping seasons, rice paddies had 52% more latent heat flux than wheat fields, whereas wheat had 73% more sensible heat flux than rice paddies. This resulted in a lower Bowen ratio in the rice paddies (0.14) than in the wheat fields (0.4). As eddy covariance observations of turbulent heat fluxes are typically less than the available energy (RnG, i.e., net radiation minus soil heat flux), energy balance closure (EBC) therefore does not occur. For rice, EBC was greatest at the vegetative growth stages (mean: 0.90) after considering the water heat storage, whereas wheat had its best EBC at the ripening stages (mean: 0.86).

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Janet Barlow, Martin Best, Sylvia I. Bohnenstengel, Peter Clark, Sue Grimmond, Humphrey Lean, Andreas Christen, Stefan Emeis, Martial Haeffelin, Ian N. Harman, Aude Lemonsu, Alberto Martilli, Eric Pardyjak, Mathias W Rotach, Susan Ballard, Ian Boutle, Andy Brown, Xiaoming Cai, Matteo Carpentieri, Omduth Coceal, Ben Crawford, Silvana Di Sabatino, Junxia Dou, Daniel R. Drew, John M. Edwards, Joachim Fallmann, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Jemma Gornall, Tobias Gronemeier, Christos H. Halios, Denise Hertwig, Kohin Hirano, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Zhiwen Luo, Gerald Mills, Makoto Nakayoshi, Kathy Pain, K. Heinke Schlünzen, Stefan Smith, Lionel Soulhac, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, Ting Sun, Natalie E Theeuwes, David Thomson, James A. Voogt, Helen C. Ward, Zheng-Tong Xie, and Jian Zhong
Open access