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Tommaso Diomede, Chiara Marsigli, Andrea Montani, Fabrizio Nerozzi, and Tiziana Paccagnella

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of calibration for limited-area ensemble precipitation forecasts, to be used for driving discharge predictions up to 5 days in advance. A reforecast dataset, which spans 30 years, based on the Consortium for Small Scale Modeling Limited-Area Ensemble Prediction System (COSMO-LEPS) was used for testing the calibration strategy. Three calibration techniques were applied: quantile-to-quantile mapping, linear regression, and analogs. The performance of these methodologies was evaluated in terms of statistical scores for the precipitation forecasts operationally provided by COSMO-LEPS in the years 2003–07 over Germany, Switzerland, and the Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). The calibration provided a beneficial impact for the ensemble forecast over Switzerland and Germany; whereas, it resulted as less effective for Emilia-Romagna. The analog-based method seemed to be preferred because of its capability of correct position errors and spread deficiencies. A suitable spatial domain for the analog search can help to handle model spatial errors as systematic errors. However, the performance of the analog-based method may degrade in cases where a limited training dataset is available. The quantile-to-quantile mapping and linear regression methods were less effective, mainly because the forecast–analysis relation was not so strong for the available training dataset. The verification of the calibration process was then performed by coupling ensemble precipitation forecasts with a distributed rainfall–runoff model. This test was carried out for a medium-sized catchment located in Emilia-Romagna, showing a beneficial impact of the analog-based method on the reduction of missed events for discharge predictions.

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Dmitry Kiktev, Paul Joe, George A. Isaac, Andrea Montani, Inger-Lise Frogner, Pertti Nurmi, Benedikt Bica, Jason Milbrandt, Michael Tsyrulnikov, Elena Astakhova, Anastasia Bundel, Stéphane Bélair, Matthew Pyle, Anatoly Muravyev, Gdaly Rivin, Inna Rozinkina, Tiziana Paccagnella, Yong Wang, Janti Reid, Thomas Nipen, and Kwang-Deuk Ahn

Abstract

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Weather Research Programme’s (WWRP) Forecast and Research in the Olympic Sochi Testbed program (FROST-2014) was aimed at the advancement and demonstration of state-of-the-art nowcasting and short-range forecasting systems for winter conditions in mountainous terrain. The project field campaign was held during the 2014 XXII Olympic and XI Paralympic Winter Games and preceding test events in Sochi, Russia. An enhanced network of in situ and remote sensing observations supported weather predictions and their verification. Six nowcasting systems (model based, radar tracking, and combined nowcasting systems), nine deterministic mesoscale numerical weather prediction models (with grid spacings down to 250 m), and six ensemble prediction systems (including two with explicitly simulated deep convection) participated in FROST-2014. The project provided forecast input for the meteorological support of the Sochi Olympic Games. The FROST-2014 archive of winter weather observations and forecasts is a valuable information resource for mesoscale predictability studies as well as for the development and validation of nowcasting and forecasting systems in complex terrain. The resulting innovative technologies, exchange of experience, and professional developments contributed to the success of the Olympics and left a post-Olympic legacy.

Open access
Philippe Bougeault, Zoltan Toth, Craig Bishop, Barbara Brown, David Burridge, De Hui Chen, Beth Ebert, Manuel Fuentes, Thomas M. Hamill, Ken Mylne, Jean Nicolau, Tiziana Paccagnella, Young-Youn Park, David Parsons, Baudouin Raoult, Doug Schuster, Pedro Silva Dias, Richard Swinbank, Yoshiaki Takeuchi, Warren Tennant, Laurence Wilson, and Steve Worley

Ensemble forecasting is increasingly accepted as a powerful tool to improve early warnings for high-impact weather. Recently, ensembles combining forecasts from different systems have attracted a considerable level of interest. The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Globa l Ensemble (TIGGE) project, a prominent contribution to THORPEX, has been initiated to enable advanced research and demonstration of the multimodel ensemble concept and to pave the way toward operational implementation of such a system at the international level. The objectives of TIGGE are 1) to facilitate closer cooperation between the academic and operational meteorological communities by expanding the availability of operational products for research, and 2) to facilitate exploring the concept and benefits of multimodel probabilistic weather forecasts, with a particular focus on high-impact weather prediction. Ten operational weather forecasting centers producing daily global ensemble forecasts to 1–2 weeks ahead have agreed to deliver in near–real time a selection of forecast data to the TIGGE data archives at the China Meteorological Agency, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The volume of data accumulated daily is 245 GB (1.6 million global fields). This is offered to the scientific community as a new resource for research and education. The TIGGE data policy is to make each forecast accessible via the Internet 48 h after it was initially issued by each originating center. Quicker access can also be granted for field experiments or projects of particular interest to the World Weather Research Programme and THORPEX. A few examples of initial results based on TIGGE data are discussed in this paper, and the case is made for additional research in several directions.

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