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Peer Fietzek, Björn Fiedler, Tobias Steinhoff, and Arne Körtzinger

Abstract

This paper presents a detailed quality assessment of a novel underwater sensor for the measurement of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) based on surface water field deployments carried out between 2008 and 2011. The commercially available sensor, which is based on membrane equilibration and nondispersive IR (NDIR) spectrometry is small and can be integrated into mobile platforms. It is calibrated in water against a proven flow-through pCO2 instrument within a custom-built calibration setup. The aspect of highest concern with respect to achievable data quality of the sensor is the compensation for signal drift inevitably connected to absorption measurements. Three means are used to correct for drift effects: (i) a filter correlation or dual-beam setup, (ii) regular zero gas measurements realized automatically within the sensor, and (iii) a zero-based transformation of two sensor calibrations flanking the time of sensor deployment.

Three sensors were tested against an underway pCO2 system during two major research cruises, providing an in situ temperature range from 7.4° to 30.1°C and pCO2 values between 289 and 445 μatm. The average difference between sensor and reference pCO2 was found to be −0.6 ±3.0 μatm with an RMSE of 3.7 μatm.

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Peer Fietzek, Björn Fiedler, Tobias Steinhoff, and Arne Körtzinger
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Jouni Heiskanen, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, Carlo Calfapietra, Huilin Chen, Bert Gielen, Thanos Gkritzalis, Samuel Hammer, Susan Hartman, Mathias Herbst, Ivan A. Janssens, Armin Jordan, Eija Juurola, Ute Karstens, Ville Kasurinen, Bart Kruijt, Harry Lankreijer, Ingeborg Levin, Maj-Lena Linderson, Denis Loustau, Lutz Merbold, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Dario Papale, Marian Pavelka, Kim Pilegaard, Michel Ramonet, Corinna Rebmann, Janne Rinne, Léonard Rivier, Elena Saltikoff, Richard Sanders, Martin Steinbacher, Tobias Steinhoff, Andrew Watson, Alex T. Vermeulen, Timo Vesala, Gabriela Vítková, and Werner Kutsch

Abstract

Since 1750, land use change and fossil fuel combustion has led to a 46 % increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, causing global warming with substantial societal consequences. The Paris Agreement aims to limiting global temperature increases to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Increasing levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), in the atmosphere are the primary cause of climate change. Approximately half of the carbon emissions to the atmosphere is sequestered by ocean and land sinks, leading to ocean acidification but also slowing the rate of global warming. However, there are significant uncertainties in the future global warming scenarios due to uncertainties in the size, nature and stability of these sinks. Quantifying and monitoring the size and timing of natural sinks and the impact of climate change on ecosystems are important information to guide policy-makers’ decisions and strategies on reductions in emissions. Continuous, long-term observations are required to quantify GHG emissions, sinks, and their impacts on Earth systems. The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) was designed as the European in situ observation and information system to support science and society in their efforts to mitigate climate change. It provides standardized and open data currently from over 140 measurement stations across 12 European countries. The stations observe GHG concentrations in the atmosphere and carbon and GHG fluxes between the atmosphere, land surface and the oceans. This article describes how ICOS fulfills its mission to harmonize these observations, ensure the related long-term financial commitments, provide easy access to well-documented and reproducible high-quality data and related protocols and tools for scientific studies, and deliver information and GHG-related products to stakeholders in society and policy.

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Jouni Heiskanen, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, Carlo Calfapietra, Huilin Chen, Bert Gielen, Thanos Gkritzalis, Samuel Hammer, Susan Hartman, Mathias Herbst, Ivan A. Janssens, Armin Jordan, Eija Juurola, Ute Karstens, Ville Kasurinen, Bart Kruijt, Harry Lankreijer, Ingeborg Levin, Maj-Lena Linderson, Denis Loustau, Lutz Merbold, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Dario Papale, Marian Pavelka, Kim Pilegaard, Michel Ramonet, Corinna Rebmann, Janne Rinne, Léonard Rivier, Elena Saltikoff, Richard Sanders, Martin Steinbacher, Tobias Steinhoff, Andrew Watson, Alex T. Vermeulen, Timo Vesala, Gabriela Vítková, and Werner Kutsch

Abstract

Since 1750, land-use change and fossil fuel combustion has led to a 46% increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, causing global warming with substantial societal consequences. The Paris Agreement aims to limit global temperature increases to well below 2°C above preindustrial levels. Increasing levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), in the atmosphere are the primary cause of climate change. Approximately half of the carbon emissions to the atmosphere are sequestered by ocean and land sinks, leading to ocean acidification but also slowing the rate of global warming. However, there are significant uncertainties in the future global warming scenarios due to uncertainties in the size, nature, and stability of these sinks. Quantifying and monitoring the size and timing of natural sinks and the impact of climate change on ecosystems are important information to guide policy-makers’ decisions and strategies on reductions in emissions. Continuous, long-term observations are required to quantify GHG emissions, sinks, and their impacts on Earth systems. The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) was designed as the European in situ observation and information system to support science and society in their efforts to mitigate climate change. It provides standardized and open data currently from over 140 measurement stations across 12 European countries. The stations observe GHG concentrations in the atmosphere and carbon and GHG fluxes between the atmosphere, land surface, and the oceans. This article describes how ICOS fulfills its mission to harmonize these observations, ensure the related long-term financial commitments, provide easy access to well-documented and reproducible high-quality data and related protocols and tools for scientific studies, and deliver information and GHG-related products to stakeholders in society and policy.

Open access