Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Toshi Matsui x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Toshi Matsui, Venkat Lakshmi, and Eric Small

Abstract

The influence of land–atmosphere interactions on the variability of the North American monsoon system (NAMS) is investigated using the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) gauge precipitation, and observed snow water equivalent (SWE). Three hypotheses are tested regarding the connection between land surface variables and precipitation in the NAMS region. First, there is a weak negative correlation between 1 April SWE and subsequent surface temperature in the southern Rocky Mountains (SRM) region. However, this connection persists only until June and, therefore, cannot directly influence monsoon rainfall in July and August. Second, there is a negative correlation between SRM surface temperature and NAMS precipitation during the monsoon season, rather than the positive correlation previously proposed. Third, there is a highly significant negative correlation between rainfall and surface temperature within the NAMS region. On the monthly timescale, surface temperature decreases by ∼4 K per 1 mm day−1 increase in rainfall, consistent with a positive soil moisture–rainfall feedback. The substantial variability of SRM skin temperature (∼10 K) may modulate the temperature gradient between land and ocean. However, these skin temperature anomalies persist only for ∼1 month, so their effects are variable throughout the monsoon season.

Full access
Toshi Matsui, Brenda Dolan, Takamichi Iguchi, Steven A. Rutledge, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Stephen Lang

Abstract

This study contrasts midlatitude continental and tropical maritime deep convective cores using polarimetric radar observables and retrievals from selected deep convection episodes during the MC3E and TWPICE field campaigns. The continental convective cores produce stronger radar reflectivities throughout the profiles, while maritime convective cores produce more positive differential reflectivity Z dr and larger specific differential phase K dp above the melting level. Hydrometeor identification retrievals revealed the presence of large fractions of rimed ice particles (snow aggregates) in the continental (maritime) convective cores, consistent with the Z dr and K dp observations. The regional cloud-resolving model simulations with bulk and size-resolved bin microphysics are conducted for the selected cases, and the simulation outputs are converted into polarimetric radar signals and retrievals identical to the observational composites. Both the bulk and the bin microphysics reproduce realistic land and ocean (L-O) contrasts in reflectivity, polarimetric variables of rain drops, and hydrometeor profiles, but there are still large uncertainties in describing Z dr and K dp of ice crystals associated with the ice particle shapes/orientation assumptions. Sensitivity experiments are conducted by swapping background aerosols between the continental and maritime environments, revealing that background aerosols play a role in shaping the distinct L-O contrasts in radar reflectivity associated with raindrop sizes, in addition to the dominant role of background thermodynamics.

Free access
Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

Abstract

A 14-yr climatology of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) collocated multisensor signal statistics reveals a distinct land–ocean contrast as well as geographical variability of precipitation type, intensity, and microphysics. Microphysics information inferred from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager show a large land–ocean contrast for the deep category, suggesting continental convective vigor. Over land, TRMM shows higher echo-top heights and larger maximum echoes, suggesting taller storms and more intense precipitation, as well as larger microwave scattering, suggesting the presence of more/larger frozen convective hydrometeors. This strong land–ocean contrast in deep convection is invariant over seasonal and multiyear time scales. Consequently, relatively short-term simulations from two global storm-resolving models can be evaluated in terms of their land–ocean statistics using the TRMM Triple-Sensor Three-Step Evaluation Framework via a satellite simulator. The models evaluated are the NASA Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) and the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Cloud Atmospheric Model (NICAM). While both simulations can represent convective land–ocean contrasts in warm precipitation to some extent, near-surface conditions over land are relatively moister in NICAM than MMF, which appears to be the key driver in the divergent warm precipitation results between the two models. Both the MMF and NICAM produced similar frequencies of large CAPE between land and ocean. The dry MMF boundary layer enhanced microwave scattering signals over land, but only NICAM had an enhanced deep convection frequency over land. Neither model could reproduce a realistic land–ocean contrast in deep convective precipitation microphysics. A realistic contrast between land and ocean remains an issue in global storm-resolving modeling.

Full access
Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

Abstract

This study presents results from a model intercomparison project, focusing on the range of responses in deep convective cloud updrafts to varying cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations among seven state-of-the-art cloud-resolving models. Simulations of scattered convective clouds near Houston, Texas, are conducted, after being initialized with both relatively low and high CCN concentrations. Deep convective updrafts are identified, and trends in the updraft intensity and frequency are assessed. The factors contributing to the vertical velocity tendencies are examined to identify the physical processes associated with the CCN-induced updraft changes. The models show several consistent trends. In general, the changes between the High-CCN and Low-CCN simulations in updraft magnitudes throughout the depth of the troposphere are within 15% for all of the models. All models produce stronger (~+5%–15%) mean updrafts from ~4–7 km above ground level (AGL) in the High-CCN simulations, followed by a waning response up to ~8 km AGL in most of the models. Thermal buoyancy was more sensitive than condensate loading to varying CCN concentrations in most of the models and more impactful in the mean updraft responses. However, there are also differences between the models. The change in the amount of deep convective updrafts varies significantly. Furthermore, approximately half the models demonstrate neutral-to-weaker (~−5% to 0%) updrafts above ~8 km AGL, while the other models show stronger (~+10%) updrafts in the High-CCN simulations. The combination of the CCN-induced impacts on the buoyancy and vertical perturbation pressure gradient terms better explains these middle- and upper-tropospheric updraft trends than the buoyancy terms alone.

Open access
Toshi Matsui, Charles Ichoku, Cynthia Randles, Tianle Yuan, Arlindo M. da Silva, Peter Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Robert Levy, Andrew Sayer, Mian Chin, David Giles, Brent Holben, Ellsworth Welton, Thomas Eck, and Lorraine Remer
Full access