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Tsuyoshi Nakatani, Ryohei Misumi, Yoshinori Shoji, Kazuo Saito, Hiromu Seko, Naoko Seino, Shin-ichi Suzuki, Yukari Shusse, Takeshi Maesaka, and Hirofumi Sugawara
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Ryohei Misumi, Yoshinori Shoji, Kazuo Saito, Hiromu Seko, Naoko Seino, Shin-ichi Suzuki, Yukari Shusse, Kohin Hirano, Stéphane Bélair, V. Chandrasekar, Dong-In Lee, Augusto Jose Pereira Filho, Tsuyoshi Nakatani, and Masayuki Maki


The Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities (TOMACS) began as a Japanese domestic research project in 2010 and aimed to elucidate the mechanisms behind local high-impact weather (LHIW) in urban areas, to improve forecasting techniques for LHIW, and to provide high-resolution weather information to end-users (local governments, private companies, and the general public) through social experiments. Since 2013, the project has been expanded as an international Research and Development Project (RDP) of the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Through this project, the following results were obtained: 1) observation data for LHIW around Tokyo were recorded using a dense network of X-band radars, a C-band polarimetric radar, a Ku-band fast-scanning radar, coherent Doppler lidars, and the Global Navigation Satellite System; 2) quantitative precipitation estimation algorithms for X-band polarimetric radars have been developed as part of an international collaboration; 3) convection initiation by the interaction of sea breezes and urban impacts on the occurrence of heavy precipitation around Tokyo were elucidated by a dense observation network, high-resolution numerical simulations, and different urban surface models; 4) an “imminent” nowcast system based on the vertically integrated liquid water derived from the X-band polarimetric radar network has been developed; 5) assimilation methods for data from advanced observation instruments such as coherent Doppler lidars and polarimetric radars were developed; and 6) public use of high-resolution radar data were promoted through the social experiments.

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