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Virginie Capelle, Alain Chédin, Eric Péquignot, Peter Schlüssel, Stuart M. Newman, and Noelle A. Scott

Abstract

Land surface temperature and emissivity spectra are essential variables for improving models of the earth surface–atmosphere interaction or retrievals of atmospheric variables such as thermodynamic profiles, chemical composition, cloud and aerosol characteristics, and so on. In most cases, emissivity spectral variations are not correctly taken into account in climate models, leading to potentially significant errors in the estimation of surface energy fluxes and temperature. Satellite infrared observations offer the dual opportunity of accurately estimating these properties of land surfaces as well as allowing a global coverage in space and time. Here, high-spectral-resolution observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) over the tropics (30°N–30°S), covering the period July 2007–March 2011, are interpreted in terms of 1° × 1° monthly mean surface skin temperature and emissivity spectra from 3.7 to 14 μm at a resolution of 0.05 μm. The standard deviation estimated for the surface temperature is about 1.3 K. For the surface emissivity, it varies from about 1%–1.5% for the 10.5–14- and 5.5–8-μm windows to about 4% around 4 μm. Results from comparisons with products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) low-resolution emissivity and surface temperature or ECMWF forecast data (temperature only) are presented and discussed. Comparisons with emissivity derived from the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) radiances collected during an aircraft campaign over Oman and made at the scale of the IASI field of view offer valuable data for the validation of the IASI retrievals.

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Fiona Hilton, Raymond Armante, Thomas August, Chris Barnet, Aurelie Bouchard, Claude Camy-Peyret, Virginie Capelle, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre-Francois Coheur, Andrew Collard, Cyril Crevoisier, Gaelle Dufour, David Edwards, Francois Faijan, Nadia Fourrié, Antonia Gambacorta, Mitchell Goldberg, Vincent Guidard, Daniel Hurtmans, Samuel Illingworth, Nicole Jacquinet-Husson, Tobias Kerzenmacher, Dieter Klaes, Lydie Lavanant, Guido Masiello, Marco Matricardi, Anthony McNally, Stuart Newman, Edward Pavelin, Sebastien Payan, Eric Péquignot, Sophie Peyridieu, Thierry Phulpin, John Remedios, Peter Schlüssel, Carmine Serio, Larrabee Strow, Claudia Stubenrauch, Jonathan Taylor, David Tobin, Walter Wolf, and Daniel Zhou

The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) forms the main infrared sounding component of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites's (EUMETSAT's) Meteorological Operation (MetOp)-A satellite (Klaes et al. 2007), which was launched in October 2006. This article presents the results of the first 4 yr of the operational IASI mission. The performance of the instrument is shown to be exceptional in terms of calibration and stability. The quality of the data has allowed the rapid use of the observations in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) and the development of new products for atmospheric chemistry and climate studies, some of which were unexpected before launch. The assimilation of IASI observations in NWP models provides a significant forecast impact; in most cases the impact has been shown to be at least as large as for any previous instrument. In atmospheric chemistry, global distributions of gases, such as ozone and carbon monoxide, can be produced in near–real time, and short-lived species, such as ammonia or methanol, can be mapped, allowing the identification of new sources. The data have also shown the ability to track the location and chemistry of gaseous plumes and particles associated with volcanic eruptions and fires, providing valuable data for air quality monitoring and aircraft safety. IASI also contributes to the establishment of robust long-term data records of several essential climate variables. The suite of products being developed from IASI continues to expand as the data are investigated, and further impacts are expected from increased use of the data in NWP and climate studies in the coming years. The instrument has set a high standard for future operational hyperspectral infrared sounders and has demonstrated that such instruments have a vital role in the global observing system.

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