Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: W. Frank Staylor x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
W. Frank Staylor

Abstract

Clear-sky albedos and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) determined from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners on board the earth radiation budget satellite and NOAA-9 spacecraft were analyzed for three target sites for the months February 1985–January 1987. The targets were oceans, deserts, and a multiscene site covering half the earth's surface. Year-to-year ratios of the monthly albedos and OLR were within the 0.98–1.02 range with a standard error of about 1%. The data indicate that ERBE scanner measurements were stable to within a few tenths of a percent for the two-year period.

Full access
W. Frank Staylor

Abstract

AVHRR channel 1 (0.57–0.69 µm) degradations were determined by comparing desert models with 68 months of observations of the Libyan Desert (20° to 30°N, 201 to 30°E). The comparisons revealed that the degradation rates were 0, 3.5% and 6.0% per year for NOAA 6, 7, and 9, respectively. An analysis based on zonal measurements covering half of Earth's surface suggests that thew rates are applicable to all surface types.

Full access
W. Frank Staylor and John T. Suttles

Abstract

Broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements obtained from the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget scanner were used to develop reflectance and emittance models for the Sahara-Arabian, Gibson, and Saudi Deserts. The models were established by fitting the satellite measurements to analytic functions. For the shartwave, the model function is based on an approximate solution to the radiative transfer equation. The bidirectional-reflectance function was obtained from a single-scattering approximation with a Rayleigh-like phase function. The diredional-reflactance model followed from integration of the bidirectional model and is a function of the sum and product of cosine solar and viewing zenith angles, thus satisfying reciprocity between these angles. The emittance model was based on a simple power-law of cosine viewing zenith angle.

Full access
Wayne L. Darnell, Shashi K. Gupta, and W. Frank Staylor

Abstract

An extensive study has been carried out to validate a satellite technique for estimating downward longwave radiation at the surface. The technique, mostly developed earlier, uses operational sun-synchronous satellite data and a radiative transfer model to provide the surface flux estimates. The satellite-derived fluxes were compared directly with corresponding ground-measured fluxes at four different sites in the United States for a common one-year data period. This provided a study of seasonal variations as well as a diversity of meteorological conditions. Dome heating errors in the ground-measured fluxes were also investigated and were corrected prior to the comparisons. Comparison of the monthly averaged fluxes from the satellite and ground sources for all four sites for the entire year showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and a standard error of estimate of 10 W m−2. A brief description of the technique is provided, and the results validating the technique are presented.

Full access
Wayne L. Darnell, Shashi K. Gupta, and W. Frank Staylor

Abstract

A new technique is presented for generating downward longwave flux at the Earth's surface from satellite meteorological data and a radiative transfer model The technique was tested by using TIROS-N data from 41 passes over a ground site covering a period of one month. Satellite-derived fluxes were compared with those measured by a ground-based pyrgeometer during each overpass. The standard error of the satellite-derived fluxes relative to the mean ground-measured values was found to be 6.5%.

Full access
Wayne L. Darnell, W. Frank Staylor, Shashi K. Gupta, and Frank M. Denn

Abstract

A technique is presented for estimating insulation at the Earth's surface using only sun-synchronous satellite data. The technique was tested by comparing the insolation results from year-long satellite datasets with simultaneous ground-measured insolation taken at five continental United States sites Monthly average insolation values derived from the satellite data showed a standard error of 4.2 W m−2, or 2.7% of the average ground insulation value.

Full access
Edwin F. Harrison, David R. Brooks, Patrick Minnis, Bruce A. Wielicki, W. Frank Staylor, Gary G. Gibson, David F. Young, Frederick M. Denn, and the ERBE Science Team

First results for diurnal cycles derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented for the combined Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and NOAA-9 spacecraft for April 1985. Regional scale longwave (LW) radiation data are analyzed to determine diurnal variations for the total scene (including clouds) and for clear-sky conditions. The LW diurnal range was found to be greatest for clear desert regions (up to about 70 W · m−2) and smallest for clear oceans (less than 5 W · m−2). Local time of maximum longwave radiation occurs at a wide range of times throughout the day and night over oceans, but generally occurs from noon to early afternoon over land and desert regions.

Full access