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Walter C. Conover and W. G. Stroud

Abstract

Efforts to improve the basic design of a high-altitude radiosonde hypsometer have resulted in a working model consisting of a small vacuum flask filled with cotton which has been saturated with carbon-disulfide, and in which is immersed a bent-stem bead thermistor. In laboratory tests this device proved capable of measuring pressures within one per cent in the range 300 to five mb and within two per cent in the range five to two mb. Flight tests using only an aneroid capsule as the pressure “standard” have shown that this model functions with an accuracy of two to five per cent in the pressure range 30 to two mb.

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M. Ference Jr., W. G. Stroud, J. R. Walsh, and A. G. Weisner

Abstract

The temperatures in the region of the atmosphere between 30 and 80 kilometers have been determined from measurements of the velocity of sound in nearly vertical propagation. The sources of sound were grenades consecutively ejected from Aerobee rockets. The method of analysis of the data to obtain accurate temperatures is described, and the results are presented.

The temperature data are in good agreement with balloon data near 30 km and show a maximum of about 268K at 48 km. The probable errors are less than 3 percent. There are no clear-cut seasonal effects at the latitude of the firings, 32°N, although a number of marked irregularities in temperature in individual firings was noted.

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P. Joe, S. Belair, N.B. Bernier, V. Bouchet, J. R. Brook, D. Brunet, W. Burrows, J.-P. Charland, A. Dehghan, N. Driedger, C. Duhaime, G. Evans, A.-B. Filion, R. Frenette, J. de Grandpré, I. Gultepe, D. Henderson, A. Herdt, N. Hilker, L. Huang, E. Hung, G. Isaac, C.-H. Jeong, D. Johnston, J. Klaassen, S. Leroyer, H. Lin, M. MacDonald, J. MacPhee, Z. Mariani, T. Munoz, J. Reid, A. Robichaud, Y. Rochon, K. Shairsingh, D. Sills, L. Spacek, C. Stroud, Y. Su, N. Taylor, J. Vanos, J. Voogt, J. M. Wang, T. Wiechers, S. Wren, H. Yang, and T. Yip

Abstract

The Pan and Parapan American Games (PA15) are the third largest sporting event in the world and were held in Toronto in the summer of 2015 (10–26 July and 7–15 August). This was used as an opportunity to coordinate and showcase existing innovative research and development activities related to weather, air quality (AQ), and health at Environment and Climate Change Canada. New observational technologies included weather stations based on compact sensors that were augmented with black globe thermometers, two Doppler lidars, two wave buoys, a 3D lightning mapping array, two new AQ stations, and low-cost AQ and ultraviolet sensors. These were supplemented by observations from other agencies, four mobile vehicles, two mobile AQ laboratories, and two supersites with enhanced vertical profiling. High-resolution modeling for weather (250 m and 1 km), AQ (2.5 km), lake circulation (2 km), and wave models (250-m, 1-km, and 2.5-km ensembles) were run. The focus of the science, which guided the design of the observation network, was to characterize and investigate the lake breeze, which affects thunderstorm initiation, air pollutant transport, and heat stress. Experimental forecasts and nowcasts were provided by research support desks. Web portals provided access to the experimental products for other government departments, public health authorities, and PA15 decision-makers. The data have been released through the government of Canada’s Open Data Portal and as a World Meteorological Organization’s Global Atmospheric Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment dataset.

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