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A New Gradient-Wind Nomogram

(With separate folded chart)

W. L. Godson

A nomographic solution is found for the gradient-wind equation in terms of the curvature of pressure-contour lines and the motion of pressure-contour systems. From the nomogram the gradient wind can be found as a function of the geostrophic wind, and in addition the radius of curvature of the trajectory can be evaluated. Subsidiary aids in determining the quantities involved are discussed, as well as the application of the computing device to routine upper wind forecasting.

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W. L. Godson
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W. L. Godson

Abstract

The calculation of transmission for a model spectrum requires the adoption of a distribution function for line intensity. In the case of the infrared water-vapor spectrum (random model), a logarithmic ogive distribution for line intensity is very realistic and produces smaller transmission and cooling-rate errors than other functions previously proposed. These results apply also when experimental data are assumed available and the requisite parameters are obtained by curve fitting.

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C. L. MATEER and W. L. GODSON

Abstract

A combination nomogram is presented for the calculation of solar altitude and azimuth for any latitude, solar declination, and time of day.

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D. M. Hunten and W. L. Godson

Abstract

No abstract available.

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D. M. Hunten and W. L. Godson

Abstract

A cross correlation (by the superposed-epoch method) has been carried out between sodium abundance, measured in twilight at Saskatoon, and stratospheric warmings, observed in temperature data at Churchill and Alert. A significant peak appears to be present in data from four winters. It is suggested that vertical motion, as indicated by the warming events, is raising a source of sodium atoms into the 90-km region. This source is probably in the form of dust (or aerosol) particles, whose origin could he either meteoric or marine. Partial evaporation of these particles in the daytime could explain the additional sodium observed in the dayglow. A natural explanation is also given of the seasonal abundance variation and the very steep sodium distributions often observed.

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G. M. Shah and W. L. Godson

Abstract

Harmonic analysis of mean monthly zonal wind and temperature data,after removing the annual cycle, have shown the existence of the 26-month oscillation in the equatorial stratosphere. The oscillation in temperature extends to temperate and polar latitudes, while in zonal wind it is insignificant beyond 25N.

The amplitude of the 26-month oscillation in temperature follows a meridional wave pattern with an approximate wavelength of about 30 deg of latitude.

The phase of the 26-month oscillation in both zonal wind and temperature progresses downward, at equatorial latitudes, with a speed a little less than 1 km per month. The oscillation in temperature at the position of the tropical amplitude maximum is approximately out of phase with the oscillations at high level equatorial latitudes and at temperate and polar latitudes.

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W. L. Godson, C. L. Crozier, and J. D. Holland

Abstract

A precipitation physics project aimed at discovering basic relationships in the chain of cause and effect in precipitation mechanisms was operated in western Quebec province, Canada, from 1959 to 1963 inclusive. In addition to many physical measurements taken from an aircraft and on the ground, randomized cloud seeding was employed as one method of study. Clouds over one of two test areas were seeded with silver iodide released from an aircraft during the passage of synoptic-scale weather systems, with the choice of area by a random selection. Comparison of storm rainfall in the two test areas measured by a dense network of raingages was used to evaluate the effect of the cloud seeding. Statistical tests of the relationship of precipitable water and instability with the seeding effect were also conducted. A small negative seeding index was computed and a slight correlation was found between both precipitable water and instability and the seeding index ratio. However, none of these relationships was found to be statistically significant.

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A. M. Crocker, W. L. Godson, and C. M. Penner

Abstract

A frontal contour chart is one portraying the topography of frontal surfaces by means of contour lines. The method of constructing the charts is briefly indicated. Frontal contour charts have been prepared on a routine basis for about a year; a close study of these charts has revealed a number of interesting features. Isolated or semi-isolated domes of cold air and pockets of warm air are found at intervals. The characteristics, motion, and manner of formation of these are described briefly. Upper fronts, both cold and warm, take on a fresh significance when studied by means of frontal contour charts. The paper ends with a discussion of the role of cold domes and warm pockets in the mechanism of the general circulation.

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