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W. Schwerdtfeger

Abstract

The surface temperature field in the region of the Antarctic Peninsula has changed significantly in recent years. Concurrent with an increase of warm air advection on the west side of the Peninsula since 1970, Marguerite Bay (68.3°S, 69.0°W) has been free of ice in each of the last five summer seasons.

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W. Schwerdtfeger

Abstract

Theoretical considerations as well as observational evidence lead to the conclusion that the frequent, strong, southerly and southwesterly surface winds along the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula do not necessarily indicate the presence of a low-pressure system in the central Weddell Sea. Such winds can, and frequently do, develop when cold air masses with a pronounced surface inversion move westward over the ice-covered sea and find their way blocked by the mountains of the Peninsula. Consequently, much colder air is found east of the mountain than on their west side. For the six months of fall and winter, the average west-east surface temperature difference amounts to 12°C at 65°S. The feedback mechanisms between the surface winds in the western and northern Weddell Sea, the resulting drift of ice, and the temperature regime of the entire Weddell Sea area are examined.

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W. Schwerdtfeger

Abstract

No abstract available.

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W. SCHWERDTFEGER

Abstract

The annual march of the strength of the southern circumpolar vortex is shown to be composed of a simple annual variation (with the maximum occurring in late winter) which dominates in the stratosphere, and a semiannual variation with the maximum at the equinoxes, which is the dominating part in the troposphere. This behavior of the circumpolar vortex is considered to be the consequence of the seasonal variation of radiation conditions and of the different efficiency of meridional turbulent exchange in the troposphere and stratosphere. It is suggested that the semiannual variation of the tropospheric vortex is an essential feature of a planetary circulation. The annual march of pressure with opposite phase values at polar and middle latitudes, can be understood as a consequence of the formation and decay of the great circumpolar vortex.

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W. Schwerdtfeger
and
F. Prohaska

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

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Werner Schwerdtfeger
and
David W. Martin

Abstract

Data from all available sources have been used to construct vertical cross sections of the seasonal mean flow of the atmosphere between 900 and 30 mb, over the western and southern part of South America. Monthly zonal wind profiles are presented for the subpolar region where the stratospheric circumpolar westerlies in late winter are strongest. For these latitudes, an extrapolation of the zonal wind up to the 10-mb level is attempted.

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