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Philip A. Leighton
,
William A. Perkins
,
Stuart W. Grinnell
, and
Francis X. Webster

Abstract

This paper describes the current status and discuss the validity of the fluorescent particle (FP) tracer technique. Properties of the material itself, the blower generator, membrane filter, drum impactor, and Rotorod samplers, and of counting techniques, are described. The inherent and operational errors involved are evaluated, and evidence on the atmospheric diffusion, fallout and impaction, and fluorescent stability of the particles is presents. It is concluded that in the present state of development of the technique the errors, in terms of 90% confidence Intervals, are approximately ±5–10% for source strength determination, ±10–12% (if 300 particles are counted) for dosages determined by the Rotorod, and ±17–20% for dosages determined by the membrane filter sampler. The effects of atypical diffusion on the validity of the method appear to be insignificant, and fluorescence losses may be controlled by proper selection of materials. For ground releases the losses by fallout and impaction may amount to from 1% to 10% during the first few miles of travel, depending on the rate of rise of the cloud and the nature of the ground cover. For larger travel distances, if the cloud height exceeds 100 meters the fallout loss should he below 2% per hour.

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Robert J. H. Dunn
,
Freya Aldred
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Nadine Gobron
,
John B. Miller
,
Kate M. Willett
,
Melanie Ades
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Robert Adler
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R. P. Allan
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John Anderson
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Orlane Anneville
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Yasuyuki Aono
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Anthony Argüez
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Carlo Arosio
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John A. Augustine
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Cesar Azorin-Molina
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Jonathan Barichivich
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Aman Basu
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Hylke E. Beck
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Nicolas Bellouin
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Angela Benedetti
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Kevin Blagrave
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Stephen Blenkinsop
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Olivier Bock
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Xavier Bodin
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Michael G. Bosilovich
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Olivier Boucher
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Gerald Bove
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Dennis Buechler
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Stefan A. Buehler
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Laura Carrea
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Kai-Lan Chang
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Hanne H. Christiansen
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John R. Christy
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Eui-Seok Chung
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Laura M. Ciasto
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Melanie Coldewey-Egbers
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Owen R. Cooper
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Richard C. Cornes
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Curt Covey
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Thomas Cropper
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Molly Crotwell
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Diego Cusicanqui
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Sean M. Davis
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Richard A. M. de Jeu
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Doug Degenstein
,
Reynald Delaloye
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Markus G. Donat
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Wouter A. Dorigo
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Imke Durre
,
Geoff S. Dutton
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Gregory Duveiller
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James W. Elkins
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Thomas W. Estilow
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Nava Fedaeff
,
David Fereday
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Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Johannes Flemming
,
Michael J. Foster
,
Stacey M. Frith
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Lucien Froidevaux
,
Martin Füllekrug
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Judith Garforth
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Jay Garg
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Matthew Gentry
,
Steven Goodman
,
Qiqi Gou
,
Nikolay Granin
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Mauro Guglielmin
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Sebastian Hahn
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Leopold Haimberger
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Brad D. Hall
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Ian Harris
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Debbie L. Hemming
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Martin Hirschi
,
Shu-pen (Ben) Ho
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Robert Holzworth
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Filip Hrbáček
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Daan Hubert
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Petra Hulsman
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Dale F. Hurst
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Antje Inness
,
Ketil Isaksen
,
Viju O. John
,
Philip D. Jones
,
Robert Junod
,
Andreas Kääb
,
Johannes W. Kaiser
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Viktor Kaufmann
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Andreas Kellerer-Pirklbauer
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Elizabeth C. Kent
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Richard Kidd
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Hyungiun Kim
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Zak Kipling
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Akash Koppa
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Jan Henning L’Abée-Lund
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Xin Lan
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Kathleen O. Lantz
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David Lavers
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Norman G. Loeb
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Diego Loyola
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Remi Madelon
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Hilmar J. Malmquist
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Wlodzimierz Marszelewski
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Michael Mayer
,
Matthew F. McCabe
,
Tim R. McVicar
,
Carl A. Mears
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Annette Menzel
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Christopher J. Merchant
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Diego G. Miralles
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Stephen A. Montzka
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Colin Morice
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Leander Mösinger
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Jens Mühle
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Julien P. Nicolas
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Jeannette Noetzli
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Tiina Nõges
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Ben Noll
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John O’Keefe
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Tim J. Osborn
,
Taejin Park
,
Cecile Pellet
,
Maury S. Pelto
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Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
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Coda Phillips
,
Stephen Po-Chedley
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Lorenzo Polvani
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Wolfgang Preimesberger
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Colin Price
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Merja Pulkkanen
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Dominik G. Rains
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William J. Randel
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Samuel Rémy
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Lucrezia Ricciardulli
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Andrew D. Richardson
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David A. Robinson
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Matthew Rodell
,
Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández
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Karen H. Rosenlof
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Chris Roth
,
Alexei Rozanov
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This Rutishäuser
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Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
,
Parnchai Sawaengphokhai
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Verena Schenzinger
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Robert W. Schlegel
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Udo Schneider
,
Sapna Sharma
,
Lei Shi
,
Adrian J. Simmons
,
Carolina Siso
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Brian J. Soden
,
Viktoria Sofieva
,
Tim H. Sparks
,
Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.
,
Ryan Stauffer
,
Wolfgang Steinbrecht
,
Andrea K. Steiner
,
Kenton Stewart
,
Pietro Stradiotti
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Hagen Telg
,
Stephen J. Thackeray
,
Emmanuel Thibert
,
Michael Todt
,
Daisuke Tokuda
,
Kleareti Tourpali
,
Mari R. Tye
,
Ronald van der A
,
Robin van der Schalie
,
Gerard van der Schrier
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Mendy van der Vliet
,
Guido R. van der Werf
,
Arnold. van Vliet
,
Jean-Paul Vernier
,
Isaac J. Vimont
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Katrina Virts
,
Sebastiàn Vivero
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Holger Vömel
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Russell S. Vose
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Ray H. J. Wang
,
Markus Weber
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David Wiese
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Jeanette D. Wild
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Earle Williams
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Takmeng Wong
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R. I. Woolway
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Lin Zhao
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Xinjia Zhou
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Jerry R. Ziemke
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Ruxandra M. Zotta
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