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William C. Patzert and Klaus Wyrtki


The resultant flow calculated from 42 current meter measurements near the Hawaiian Islands for different periods of from two to six weeks between October 1964 and May 1969 indicate nearshore anticyclonic circulation around the Islands. Two possible mechanisms generating this flow are considered: steady currents induced by oscillations around the Islands and the cyclonic shear imposed on the local trade winds by the Islands.

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Joseph L. Reid, Worth D. Nowlin Jr., and William C. Patzert


The waters found within the southwestern Atlantic Ocean extend into it as separate lavers with markedly different characteristics. Along the western boundary the deeper waters, derived from the North Atlantic, are warm, highly saline, oxygen-rich and nutrient-poor. This North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) lies within the density range of the Circumpolar Water (CPW) from the south, which is cooler, lower in salinity, very low in oxygen and very high in nutrients. Where the NADW and CPW meet in the southwestern Atlantic, the NADW separates the CPW into two layers above and below the NADW—each less saline, richer in nutrients and lower in oxygen than the NADW.

Above the upper branch of the CPW lies the Subantarctic Intermediate Water, which is lowest in salinity of all the layers. Beneath the lower branch of the CPW lies an abyssal layer derived from the mid-depths of the Weddell Sea. It is colder, less saline, lower in nutrients and higher in oxygen than the Circumpolar Water.

These layers appear to be separated vertically by density gradients which tend to be sharper at the interface than in the layers themselves. These maxima in stability, which result from the interleaving of water masses from different sources, extend over hundreds of kilometers: apparently vertical exchange processes are not strong enough to dissipate them.

Within the Argentine Basin the circulation of all except the abyssal layer appears to be anticyclonic and so tightly compressed against the western boundary that equatorward flow is observed just offshore of the poleward flow at the boundary. Waters from the north (within the Brazil current near the surface and from the North Atlantic at greater depths) flow southward along the western boundary and turn eastward near 40°S, part returning around the anticyclonic gyre and part joining the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Likewise the Circumpolar Waters, which have entered from the Pacific, flow northward along the western boundary to about 40°S and then turn eastward, both above and below the NADW. The abyssal waters are derived from the Weddell Sea. Within the Argentine Basin they flow northward along the western boundary and turn eastward south of the Rio Grande Rise, and then southward on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; the abyssal flow is cyclonic beneath the anticyclonic upper circulation.

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Cynthia Rosenzweig, Radley M. Horton, Daniel A. Bader, Molly E. Brown, Russell DeYoung, Olga Dominguez, Merrilee Fellows, Lawrence Friedl, William Graham, Carlton Hall, Sam Higuchi, Laura Iraci, Gary Jedlovec, Jack Kaye, Max Loewenstein, Thomas Mace, Cristina Milesi, William Patzert, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., and Kim Toufectis

A partnership between Earth scientists and institutional stewards is helping the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepare for a changing climate and growing climate-related vulnerabilities. An important part of this partnership is an agency-wide Climate Adaptation Science Investigator (CASI) Workgroup. CASI has thus far initiated 1) local workshops to introduce and improve planning for climate risks, 2) analysis of climate data and projections for each NASA Center, 3) climate impact and adaptation toolsets, and 4) Center-specific research and engagement.

Partnering scientists with managers aligns climate expertise with operations, leveraging research capabilities to improve decision-making and to tailor risk assessment at the local level. NASA has begun to institutionalize this ongoing process for climate risk management across the entire agency, and specific adaptation strategies are already being implemented.

A case study from Kennedy Space Center illustrates the CASI and workshop process, highlighting the need to protect launch infrastructure of strategic importance to the United States, as well as critical natural habitat. Unique research capabilities and a culture of risk management at NASA may offer a pathway for other organizations facing climate risks, promoting their resilience as part of community, regional, and national strategies.

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