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Wenyi Xie, Xiankui Zeng, Dongwei Gui, Jichun Wu, and Dong Wang


The climate of the Tizinafu River basin is characterized by low temperature and sparse precipitation, and snow and glacier melt serve as the main water resource in this area. Modeling the snowmelt runoff process has great significance for local ecosystems and residents. The total streamflow of the Tizinafu River basin was divided into surface streamflow and baseflow. The surface streamflow was estimated using the routing model (RM) with Noah runoff data from Global Land Data Assimilation (GLDAS), and the parameter uncertainty of the RM was quantified through Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Additionally, the 10 commonly used baseflow separation methods of four categories [digital filter, hydrograph separation program (HYSEP), baseflow index, and Kalinlin methods] were used to generate the baseflow and were then evaluated by their performance in total streamflow simulation. The results demonstrated that the RM driven by GLDAS runoff data could reproduce the runoff process of the Tizinafu River basin. RM-Hl (local minimum HYSEP method) achieved the best performance in the total streamflow simulation, with Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficients of 0.82 and 0.93, relative errors of −0.40% and 10.50%, and observation inclusion ratios C of 62.07% and 68.52% for the calibration and verification periods, respectively. The local minimum HYSEP method was most suitable for describing the baseflow of the Tizinafu River basin among the 10 baseflow separation methods. However, digital filter methods exhibited weak performance in baseflow separation.

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