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Yun Qiu, Weiqing Han, Xinyu Lin, B. Jason West, Yuanlong Li, Wen Xing, Xiaolin Zhang, K. Arulananthan, and Xiaogang Guo

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of salinity stratification on the upper-ocean response to a category 5 tropical cyclone, Phailin, that crossed the northern Bay of Bengal (BOB) from 8 to 13 October 2013. A drastic increase of up to 5.0 psu in sea surface salinity (SSS) was observed after Phailin’s passage, whereas a weak drop of below 0.5°C was observed in sea surface temperature (SST). Rightward biases were apparent in surface current and SSS but not evident in SST. Phailin-induced SST variations can be divided into the warming and cooling stages, corresponding to the existence of the thick barrier layer (BL) and temperature inversion before and erosion after Phailin’s passage, respectively. During the warming stage, SST increased due to strong entrainment of warmer water from the BL, which overcame the cooling induced by surface heat fluxes and horizontal advection. During the cooling stage, the entrainment and upwelling dominated the SST decrease. The preexistence of the BL, which reduced entrainment cooling by ~1.09°C day−1, significantly weakened the overall Phailin-induced SST cooling. The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) experiments confirm the crucial roles of entrainment and upwelling in the Phailin-induced dramatic SSS increase and weak SST decrease. Analyses of upper-ocean stratification associated with 16 super TCs that occurred in the BOB during 1980–2015 show that intensifications of 13 TCs were associated with a thick isothermal layer, and 5 out of the 13 were associated with a thick BL. The calculation of TC intensity with and without considering subsurface temperature demonstrates the importance of large upper-ocean heat storage in TC growth.

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Emanuele Organelli, Hervé Claustre, Annick Bricaud, Catherine Schmechtig, Antoine Poteau, Xiaogang Xing, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D’Ortenzio, Giorgio Dall’Olmo, and Vincenzo Vellucci

Abstract

An array of Bio-Argo floats equipped with radiometric sensors has been recently deployed in various open ocean areas representative of the diversity of trophic and bio-optical conditions prevailing in the so-called case 1 waters. Around solar noon and almost every day, each float acquires 0–250-m vertical profiles of photosynthetically available radiation and downward irradiance at three wavelengths (380, 412, and 490 nm). Up until now, more than 6500 profiles for each radiometric channel have been acquired. As these radiometric data are collected out of an operator’s control and regardless of meteorological conditions, specific and automatic data processing protocols have to be developed. This paper presents a data quality-control procedure aimed at verifying profile shapes and providing near-real-time data distribution. This procedure is specifically developed to 1) identify main issues of measurements (i.e., dark signal, atmospheric clouds, spikes, and wave-focusing occurrences) and 2) validate the final data with a hierarchy of tests to ensure a scientific utilization. The procedure, adapted to each of the four radiometric channels, is designed to flag each profile in a way compliant with the data management procedure used by the Argo program. Main perturbations in the light field are identified by the new protocols with good performances over the whole dataset. This highlights its potential applicability at the global scale. Finally, the comparison with modeled surface irradiances allows for assessing the accuracy of quality-controlled measured irradiance values and identifying any possible evolution over the float lifetime due to biofouling and instrumental drift.

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