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Zachary K. Erickson, Andrew F. Thompson, Jörn Callies, Xiaolong Yu, Alberto Naveira Garabato, and Patrice Klein


Submesoscale dynamics are typically intensified at boundaries and assumed to weaken below the mixed layer in the open ocean. Here, we assess both the seasonality and the vertical distribution of submesoscale motions in an open-ocean region of the northeast Atlantic. Second-order structure functions, or variance in properties separated by distance, are calculated from submesoscale-resolving ocean glider and mooring observations, as well as a 1/48° numerical ocean model. This dataset combines a temporal coverage that extends through a full seasonal cycle, a horizontal resolution that captures spatial scales as small as 1 km, and vertical sampling that provides near-continuous coverage over the upper 1000 m. While kinetic and potential energies undergo a seasonal cycle, being largest during the winter, structure function slopes, influenced by dynamical characteristics, do not exhibit a strong seasonality. Furthermore, structure function slopes show weak vertical variations; there is not a strong change in properties across the base of the mixed layer. Additionally, we compare the observations to output from a high-resolution numerical model. The model does not represent variability associated with superinertial motions and does not capture an observed reduction in submesoscale kinetic energy that occurs throughout the water column in spring. Overall, these results suggest that the transfer of mixed layer submesoscale variability down to depths below the traditionally defined mixed layer is important throughout the weakly stratified subpolar mode waters.

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Xiaolong Yu, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Adrian P. Martin, and David P. Marshall


The evolution of upper-ocean potential vorticity (PV) over a full year in a typical midocean area of the northeast Atlantic is examined using submesoscale- and mesoscale-resolving hydrographic and velocity measurements from a mooring array. A PV budget framework is applied to quantitatively document the competing physical processes responsible for deepening and shoaling the mixed layer. The observations reveal a distinct seasonal cycle in upper-ocean PV, characterized by frequent occurrences of negative PV within deep (up to about 350 m) mixed layers from winter to mid-spring, and positive PV beneath shallow (mostly less than 50 m) mixed layers during the remainder of the year. The cumulative positive and negative subinertial changes in the mixed layer depth, which are largely unaccounted for by advective contributions, exceed the deepest mixed layer by one order of magnitude, suggesting that mixed layer depth is shaped by the competing effects of destratifying and restratifying processes. Deep mixed layers are attributed to persistent atmospheric cooling from winter to mid-spring, which triggers gravitational instability leading to mixed layer deepening. However, on shorter time scales of days, conditions favorable to symmetric instability often occur as winds intermittently align with transient frontal flows. The ensuing submesoscale frontal instabilities are found to fundamentally alter upper-ocean turbulent convection, and limit the deepening of the mixed layer in the winter-to-mid-spring period. These results emphasize the key role of submesoscale frontal instabilities in determining the seasonal evolution of the mixed layer in the open ocean.

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Xiaolong Yu, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Adrian P. Martin, Christian E. Buckingham, Liam Brannigan, and Zhan Su


Numerical simulations suggest that submesoscale turbulence may transform lateral buoyancy gradients into vertical stratification and thus restratify the upper ocean via vertical flow. However, the observational evidence for this restratifying process has been lacking due to the difficulty in measuring such ephemeral phenomena, particularly over periods of months to years. This study presents an annual cycle of the vertical velocity and associated restratification estimated from two nested clusters of meso- and submesoscale-resolving moorings, deployed in a typical midocean area of the northeast Atlantic. Vertical velocities inferred using the nondiffusive density equation are substantially stronger at submesoscales (horizontal scales of 1–10 km) than at mesoscales (horizontal scales of 10–100 km), with respective root-mean-square values of 38.0 ± 6.9 and 22.5 ± 3.3 m day−1. The largest submesoscale vertical velocities and rates of restratification occur in events of a few days’ duration in winter and spring, and extend down to at least 200 m below the mixed layer base. These events commonly coincide with the enhancement of submesoscale lateral buoyancy gradients, which is itself associated with persistent mesoscale frontogenesis. This suggests that mesoscale frontogenesis is a regular precursor of the submesoscale turbulence that restratifies the upper ocean. The upper-ocean restratification induced by submesoscale motions integrated over the annual cycle is comparable in magnitude to the net destratification driven by local atmospheric cooling, indicating that submesoscale flows play a significant role in determining the climatological upper-ocean stratification in the study area.

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