Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 51 items for

  • Author or Editor: Xin Li x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Zhao-Xin Li

Abstract

The climate interannual variability is examined using the general circulation model (GCM) developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. The model is forced by the observed sea surface temperature for the period 1979–94. An ensemble of eight simulations is realized with different initial conditions. The variability of the Southern Oscillation is studied. The simulated sea level pressure anomalies at both Tahiti and Darwin are realistic compared to observations. It is revealed, however, that the simulated convection activity response to the warm episode of El Niño is too weak over the eastern part of the tropical Pacific. This explains why the simulated Pacific–North American pattern is shifted westward. A global El Niño pattern index is defined and calculated for both the simulation and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data. This serves as a quantitative measure of El Niño’s global impact. A singular value decomposition analysis performed with the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and the Northern Hemisphere 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the model’s teleconnection between the Tropics and high latitudes is similar to that of the NCEP reanalysis data.

In an exploratory manner, the model’s internal variability versus the external forced variability is studied. It is shown that, except for the equatorial strip, the internal model variability is larger than the external variability. An ensemble mean is thus necessary in order to focus on the model’s response to external sea surface temperature anomalies. An attempt is also made to evaluate statistically the influence of the ensemble’s size on the model’s reproducibility. It is shown that, with this particular GCM, at least five realizations are necessary to correctly assess the teleconnection between the Tropics and the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. This dependency on the number of realizations is less for the tropical circulation.

Full access
Yulong Bai and Xin Li

Abstract

The methods of parameterizing model errors have a substantial effect on the accuracy of ensemble data assimilation. After a review of the current error-handling methods, a new blending error parameterization method was designed to combine the advantages of multiplicative inflation and additive inflation. Motivated by evolutionary algorithm concepts that have been developed in the control engineering field for years, the authors propose a new data assimilation method coupled with crossover principles of genetic algorithms based on ensemble transform Kalman filters (ETKFs). The numerical experiments were developed based on the classic nonlinear model (i.e., the Lorenz model). Convex crossover, affine crossover, direction-based crossover, and blending crossover data assimilation systems were consequently designed. When focusing on convex crossover and affine crossover data assimilation problems, the error adjustment factors were investigated with respect to four aspects, which were the initial conditions of the Lorenz model, the number of ensembles, observation covariance, and the observation interval. A new data assimilation system, coupled with genetic algorithms, is proposed to solve the difficult problem of the error adjustment factor search, which is usually performed using trial-and-error methods. The results show that all of the methods can adaptively obtain the best error factors within the constraints of the fitness function.

Full access
Xin Li, Xiaolei Zou, and Mingjian Zeng

Abstract

Bias correction (BC) is a crucial step for satellite radiance data assimilation (DA). In this study, the traditional airmass BC scheme in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is investigated for Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) DA. The ability of the airmass predictors to model CrIS biases is diagnosed. Correlations between CrIS observation-minus-background (OB) samples and the two lapse rate–related airmass predictors employed by GSI are found to be very weak, indicating that the bias correction contributed by the airmass BC scheme is small. A modified BC scheme, which directly calculates the moving average of OB departures from data of the previous 2 weeks with respect to scan position and latitudinal band, is proposed and tested. The impact of the modified BC scheme on CrIS radiance DA is compared with the variational airmass BC scheme. Results from 1-month analysis/forecast experiments show that the modified BC scheme removes nearly all scan-dependent and latitude-dependent biases, while residual biases are still found in some channels when the airmass BC scheme is applied. Smaller predicted root-mean-square errors of temperature and specific humidity and higher equivalent threat scores are obtained by the DA experiment using the modified BC scheme. If OB samples are replaced by observation-minus-analysis (OA) samples for bias estimates in the modified BC scheme, the forecast impacts are reduced but remain positive. A convective precipitation case that occurred on 21 August 2016 is investigated. Using the modified BC scheme, the atmospheric temperature structure and the geopotential height structures near trough/ridge areas are better resolved, resulting in better precipitation forecasts.

Full access
Xin Li, Zhaoxia Pu, and Zhiqiu Gao

Abstract

Horizontal boundary layer roll vortices are a series of large-scale turbulent eddies that prevail in a hurricane’s boundary layer. In this paper, a one-way nested sub-kilometer-scale large-eddy simulation (LES) based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to examine the impact of roll vortices on the evolution of Hurricane Harvey around its landfall from 0000 UTC 25 August to 1800 UTC 27 August 2017. The simulation results imply that the turbulence in the LES can be attributed mainly to roll vortices. With the representation of roll vortices, the LES provided a better simulation of hurricane wind vertical structure and precipitation. In contrast, the mesoscale simulation with the YSU PBL scheme overestimated the precipitation for the hurricane over the ocean. Further analysis indicates that the roll vortices introduced a positive vertical flux and thinner inflow layer, whereas a negative flux maintained the maximum tangential wind at around 400 m above ground. During hurricane landfall, the weak negative flux maintained the higher wind in the LES. The overestimated low-level vertical flux in the mesoscale simulation with the YSU scheme led to overestimated hurricane intensity over the ocean and accelerated the decay of the hurricane during landfall. Rainfall analysis reveals that the roll vortices led to a weak updraft and insufficient water vapor supply in the LES. For the simulation with the YSU scheme, the strong updraft combined with surplus water vapor eventually led to unrealistic heavy rainfall for the hurricane over the ocean.

Open access
Xin Li, Chongyin Li, Jian Ling, and Yanke Tan

Abstract

This study introduces a new methodology for identifying El Niño and La Niña events. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns for El Niño and La Niña onset, peak, and end phases are classified by self-organizing maps (SOM) analysis. Both onset and end phases for El Niño and La Niña exhibit eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) types. The SST anomaly patterns in peak phase can be classified into EP, EP-like, and CP types for El Niño, and EP, mixed (MIX), and CP types for La Niña.

The general type of each El Niño or La Niña event is then defined according to the SST type for each of the three phases. There is no robust connection between the general types of the contiguous El Niño and La Niña except that the MIX La Niña rarely induces a subsequent CP El Niño. However, there are strong relationships between the end-phase type of El Niño and the onset-phase type of the subsequent La Niña. The EP-end-type El Niño favors transition to the CP-onset-type La Niña, while the CP-end-type El Niño favors transition to the EP-onset-type La Niña. On the other hand, the CP-end-type La Niña favors transition to EP-onset-type El Niño. Furthermore, an El Niño that occurs after the decay of La Niña favors initiating as an EP-onset type. These relationships are driven by different atmosphere–ocean dynamics, such as coupled air–sea feedback, thermocline feedback, slow SST mode, and Bjerknes feedbacks.

Full access
Gang Li, Chongyin Li, Yanke Tan, and Xin Wang

Abstract

The present study investigates the relationships between the December–February (DJF) South Pacific tripole (SPT) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern and the following March–May (MAM) rainfall over eastern China based on multiple datasets. It is found that the relationships between the DJF SPT and the following MAM rainfall over eastern China are modulated by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). When the ENSO signal is removed, the positive DJF SPT is significantly associated with more rainfall over eastern China during the following boreal spring. However, such significant relationships disappear if ENSO is considered. After removing ENSO impacts, the possible mechanisms through which the DJF SPT impacts the following MAM rainfall over eastern China are investigated. The positive DJF SPT is associated with the significantly positive SSTA in the tropical western Pacific, which can persist to the following MAM. In response to the positive SSTA in the tropical western Pacific, a wave-like train in the low-level troposphere extends from the tropical western Pacific (an anomalous cyclone) to the western North Pacific (an anomalous anticyclone) during the following MAM. The anomalous anticyclone over the western North Pacific enhances the anomalous southwesterly over eastern China, which can bring more moisture and favor anomalous increased rainfall. It should be pointed out that La Niña (El Niño) could induce an anomalous cyclone (anticyclone) over the western North Pacific, which offsets the MAM anomalous anticyclone (cyclone) caused by the positive (negative) SPT in the preceding DJF and thus weakens the relationship between the SPT and the rainfall over eastern China.

Full access
Yuanlong Li, Yuqing Wang, Yanluan Lin, and Xin Wang

Abstract

The radius of maximum wind (RMW) has been found to contract rapidly well preceding rapid intensification in tropical cyclones (TCs) in recent literature, but the understanding of the involved dynamics is incomplete. In this study, this phenomenon is revisited based on ensemble axisymmetric numerical simulations. Consistent with previous studies, because the absolute angular momentum (AAM) is not conserved following the RMW, the phenomenon cannot be understood based on the AAM-based dynamics. Both budgets of tangential wind and the rate of change in the RMW are shown to provide dynamical insights into the simulated relationship between the rapid intensification and rapid RMW contraction. During the rapid RMW contraction stage, due to the weak TC intensity and large RMW, the moderate negative radial gradient of radial vorticity flux and small curvature of the radial distribution of tangential wind near the RMW favor rapid RMW contraction but weak diabatic heating far inside the RMW leads to weak low-level inflow and small radial absolute vorticity flux near the RMW and thus a relatively small intensification rate. As RMW contraction continues and TC intensity increases, diabatic heating inside the RMW and radial inflow near the RMW increase, leading to a substantial increase in radial absolute vorticity flux near the RMW and thus the rapid TC intensification. However, the RMW contraction rate decreases rapidly due to the rapid increase in the curvature of the radial distribution of tangential wind near the RMW as the TC intensifies rapidly and RMW decreases.

Restricted access
Guiwan Chen, Jian Ling, Yuanwen Zhang, Xin Wang, and Chongyin Li

Abstract

This study explores the impacts of background states on the propagation of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) in 24 CMIP5 models using a precipitation-based MJO tracking method. The ability of the model to reproduce the MJO propagation is reflected in the occurrence frequency of individual MJO events. Moisture budget analysis suggests that the occurrence frequencies of MJO events that propagate across the Indian Ocean (IO-MJO) and western Pacific (WP-MJO) in the models are mainly related to the low-level meridional moisture advection ahead of the MJO convection center. This advection is tightly associated with the background distribution of low-level moisture. Drier biases in background low-level moisture over the entire tropical regions account for underestimated MJO occurrence frequency in the bottom-tier simulations. This study highlights the importance of reproducing the year-to-year background states for the simulations of MJO propagation in the models by further decomposing the background states into the climatology and anomaly components. The background meridional moisture gradient accounting for the IO-MJO occurrence frequency is closely related to its climatology component; however, the anomaly component regulated by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is also important for the WP-MJO occurrence frequency. The year-to-year variations of background zonal and meridional gradients associated with ENSO account for the IO-MJO occurrence frequency tend to be offset from each other. As a result, ENSO shows no significant impact on the IO-MJO occurrence frequency. However, the MJO events are more likely to propagate across the western Pacific during El Niño years.

Restricted access
Chiyu Zhao, Xin Geng, Wenjun Zhang, and Li Qi

Abstract

Previous studies have demonstrated that the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) could affect El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through thermocline adjustment, with a stronger ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) amplitude during a negative AMO phase than during a positive phase. In this study, we find that the ENSO atmospheric anomaly amplitudes in the tropical Pacific during different AMO phases are not necessarily consistent with these ENSO SST changes. For El Niño episodes, the low-level wind and precipitation anomalies over the tropical Pacific in the boreal winter are more pronounced during the negative AMO phase than during the positive phase, corresponding well to the stronger SST anomalies. However, La Niña events during the negative AMO phase are accompanied by weaker atmospheric anomalies in the tropical Pacific, although their SST anomalies are stronger than those during the positive phase. We suggest that this mismatch between La Niña SST and atmospheric anomalies can be largely attributed to AMO decadal modulation. A positive AMO favors intensified trade winds and weakened precipitation in the central tropical Pacific by modifying Walker circulation. Therefore, when La Niña coincides with a positive AMO, the low-level easterly and negative precipitation anomalies are superimposed, which gives rise to stronger atmospheric perturbations. In contrast, under a negative AMO background, the atmospheric anomalies induced by La Niña anomalous SST are partly counteracted by the AMO remote decadal modulation, thereby resulting in weaker anomaly amplitudes. Here, we highlight that AMO decadal forcing needs to be considered when investigating ENSO atmospheric variabilities and related regional climate impacts.

Restricted access
Jinfeng Ding, Xiaoyong Zhuge, Xin Li, Zipeng Yuan, and Yuan Wang

Abstract

Two comparative studies have been performed to evaluate the accuracy of Chinese Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) weather reports. The comparison between AMDAR reports and radiosonde observations shows that the root-mean-square differences (RMSDs) in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are 1.06°C, 1.95 m s−1, and 22°, respectively, within a spatial range of ≤20 km and a temporal window of ≤15 min. The comparison between AMDAR reports collected by different aircraft reveals that observation uncertainties in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are 0.59°C, 0.90 m s−1, and 12°, respectively. The spatial and temporal representativeness as well as the environmental factors that may affect the evaluation results are also discussed in detail in the two comparative studies. The results of the present study provide valuable information on and high confidence in the application of Chinese AMDAR in numerical weather prediction models.

Open access