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Rui Xin Huang
and
Jiayan Yang

Abstract

The structure of a Stommel type of frictional western boundary layer in a thermally driven two-layer model is examined. Instead of specifying the interfacial upwelling a priori, it is calculated as part of the solution subject to the dynamic and thermodynamic constraints. It is shown that upwelling prevails in the western boundary. Scaling analysis indicates that upwelling within the western boundary layer is two orders of magnitude stronger than that in the ocean interior. Furthermore, the total amount of upwelling within the western boundary layer constitutes a substantial part of the basin-integrated upwelling. Thus, our results suggest that it is important to study the dynamic role of western boundary upwelling in ocean circulation models.

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Lei Yang
,
Xin Wang
,
Ke Huang
, and
Dongxiao Wang
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Xiao-Yi Yang
,
Rui Xin Huang
, and
Dong Xiao Wang

Abstract

Using 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data and in situ observations, the positive trend of Southern Ocean surface wind stress during two recent decades is detected, and its close linkage with spring Antarctic ozone depletion is established. The spring Antarctic ozone depletion affects the Southern Hemisphere lower-stratospheric circulation in late spring/early summer. The positive feedback involves the strengthening and cooling of the polar vortex, the enhancement of meridional temperature gradients and the meridional and vertical potential vorticity gradients, the acceleration of the circumpolar westerlies, and the reduction of the upward wave flux. This feedback loop, together with the ozone-related photochemical interaction, leads to the upward tendency of lower-stratospheric zonal wind in austral summer. In addition, the stratosphere–troposphere coupling, facilitated by ozone-related dynamics and the Southern Annular Mode, cooperates to relay the zonal wind anomalies to the upper troposphere. The wave–mean flow interaction and the meridional circulation work together in the form of the Southern Annular Mode, which transfers anomalous wind signals downward to the surface, triggering a striking strengthening of surface wind stress over the Southern Ocean.

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Yujie Wang
,
Yang Xiang
,
Lianchun Song
, and
Xin-Zhong Liang

Abstract

Determining the contribution of urbanization to extreme high-temperature events is essential to the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH). Based on the dynamic data of land-use change in every 5 years, this study uses the coupled WRF–Building Effect Parameterization/Building Energy Model (BEP/BEM) at 1-km grid spacing to quantify the contribution of BTH urbanization to the intensity and frequency of hourly extreme high-temperature events in summer. From 1990 to 2015, extreme events over Beijing and its south increased by ∼1.5°–2°C in intensity and by 50–100 h in frequency, both of which were even higher in central Beijing and Shijiazhuang. The increases of multiyear average urbanization contribution ratios to the intensity and frequency reached 3.3% and 51.6% at the 99% confidence level (p < 0.01) from 1990 to 2015, respectively. The corresponding contributions increased 1.8 and 1.2 times more significantly in the megacities (i.e., Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang) than small and medium-sized cities. Therefore, the rapid urbanization has substantially enhanced the extreme high-temperature events in BTH. It is necessary to limit the urbanization growth rate and implement effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to sustain BTH development.

Open access
Pengkun Yang
,
Ming Bao
,
Xuejuan Ren
, and
Xin Tan

Abstract

The anomalous stratospheric state favoring the occurrence of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW) is usually referred to as vortex preconditioning. This study investigates the role of vortex preconditioning in triggering strong and weak SSWs by using ERA5 reanalysis data. Strong and weak SSWs are distinguished by the amplitude of zonal-wind deceleration of sudden stratospheric deceleration events. The robust stratospheric anomalies before strong SSWs last longer compared to weak SSWs, accompanied by stronger amplification of stratospheric wave activity near the warming. The stratospheric anomalies before weak SSWs have two significant enhancement stages, with two processes of stratospheric wave amplification. Robust stratospheric anomalies generally appear before tropospheric wave events (TWEs) followed by the strong and weak SSWs, which are absent before TWEs without SSWs. Stratospheric meridional potential vorticity gradient events (SPVEs) are defined to represent the anomalous stratospheric state during vortex preconditioning. The SPVEs can effectively modulate the stratospheric upward wave activity. No strong lower-tropospheric wave forcing is seen for the composites of both strong and weak SSWs preceded by SPVEs. These SSWs account for about 59% of the total SSWs. Furthermore, about 23% of strong SSWs and 36% of weak SSWs are only preceded by SPVEs without TWEs, indicating the major role of vortex preconditioning in triggering these SSWs. The SPVEs can be caused by wave breaking in the surf zone or the enhanced polar vortex, while the SPVEs preceded by clear wave breaking may be more favorable to the occurrence of SSWs.

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Donghai Zheng
,
Rogier van der Velde
,
Zhongbo Su
,
Jun Wen
,
Xin Wang
, and
Kun Yang

Abstract

This study evaluates the Noah land surface model (LSM) in its ability to simulate water and heat exchanges over frozen ground in a Tibetan meadow ecosystem. A comprehensive dataset including in situ micrometeorological and soil moisture–temperature profile measurements collected between November and March is utilized, and analyses of the measurements reveal that the measured soil freezing characteristics are better captured by 1) modifying the parameter b l implemented in the current Noah LSM that constrains the shape parameter of soil water retention curve utilized by the water potential freezing point depression equation to produce appropriate liquid water content θ liq under subzero temperature conditions and 2) neglecting the ice effect on soil-specific surface and thus matric potential via setting the empirical parameter that accounts for the effect of increase in specific surface of soil particles and ice–liquid water c k to zero. The numerical experiments performed with the Noah model run show that in comparison to the default Noah LSM, adoption of c k = 0 and site-specific b l values reduces the overestimation of θ liq across the soil profile. Implementation of augmentations such as the parameterization of diurnally varying thermal roughness length resolves the overestimation of daytime turbulent heat fluxes and underestimation of surface temperature. Further adoption of a new heat conductivity parameterization reduces the overestimation of nighttime surface temperature. An appropriate treatment of phase change efficiency that accounts for changing freezing rate with varying liquid water contents is also needed to reduce the temperature underestimation across soil profiles.

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Minghao Yang
,
Chongyin Li
,
Xin Li
,
Yanke Tan
,
Xiong Chen
, and
Chao Zhang

Abstract

Based on the daily NCEP reanalysis, the present study investigates the interdecadal change in the relationship between the winter North Pacific storm track (WNPST) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and evaluates the WNPST–EAWM relationship in 17 CMIP6 models. The results show that the out-of-phase WNPST–EAWM relationship underwent an interdecadal change in the mid-1980s. The WNPST–EAWM relationship became less significant during period 2 (P2; 1990–2015). The atmospheric circulation anomaly related to the EAWM during period 1 (P1; 1955–80) is more robust than that during P2. The interdecadal weakening WNPST–EAWM relationship may be attributed to the interdecadal damping WNPST–EAWM interaction. The EAWM-related anomalous baroclinic energy conversion and moisture effects, including meridional and vertical eddy moisture fluxes, contribute to the significant attenuation of the WNPST during P1. The transient eddy-induced dynamic forcing and thermal forcing anomalies, as well as the barotropic process represented by the local Eliassen–Palm flux divergence associated with WNPST, can also significantly manipulate the upper-tropospheric jet during P1. However, the atmospheric circulation and interaction between the WNPST and EAWM during P2 are not as significant as those during P1. The effect of ENSO on the WNPST is significantly different before and after the mid-1980s. After the mid-1980s, the WNPST shows the characteristic of moving equatorward during El Niño events. It seems that ENSO takes over the WNPST from the EAWM after the mid-1980s. In addition, except for BCC-ESM1, CanESM5, and SAM0-UNICON, most of the CMIP6 models cannot reproduce the significant out-of-phase WNPST–EAWM relationship.

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Fanglin Yang
,
Kenneth Mitchell
,
Yu-Tai Hou
,
Yongjiu Dai
,
Xubin Zeng
,
Zhuo Wang
, and
Xin-Zhong Liang

Abstract

This study examines the dependence of surface albedo on solar zenith angle (SZA) over snow-free land surfaces using the intensive observations of surface shortwave fluxes made by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) in 1997–2005. Results are used to evaluate the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast Systems (GFS) parameterization and several new parameterizations derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. The influence of clouds on surface albedo and the albedo difference between morning and afternoon observations are also investigated. A new approach is taken to partition the observed upward flux so that the direct-beam and diffuse albedos can be separately computed. The study focused first on the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility site. It is found that the diffuse albedo prescribed in the NCEP GFS matched closely with the observations. The direct-beam albedo parameterized in the GFS is largely underestimated at all SZAs. The parameterizations derived from the MODIS product underestimated the direct-beam albedo at large SZAs and slightly overestimated it at small SZAs. Similar results are obtained from the analyses of observations at other stations. It is also found that the morning and afternoon dependencies of direct-beam albedo on SZA differ among the stations. Attempts are made to improve numerical model algorithms that parameterize the direct-beam albedo as a product of the direct-beam albedo at SZA = 60° (or the diffuse albedo), which varies with surface type or geographical location and/or season, and a function that depends only on SZA. A method is presented for computing the direct-beam albedos over these snow-free land points without referring to a particular land-cover classification scheme, which often differs from model to model.

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Xiaoduo Pan
,
Xin Li
,
Kun Yang
,
Jie He
,
Yanlin Zhang
, and
Xujun Han

Abstract

Development of an accurate precipitation dataset is of primary importance for regional hydrological process studies and water resources management. Here, four regional precipitation products are evaluated for the Heihe River basin (HRB): 1) a spatially and temporally disaggregated Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) at 0.25° spatial resolution (DCMAP); 2) a fusion product obtained by merging China Meteorological Administration station data and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data at 0.1° spatial resolution supported by the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (ITP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (ITP-F); 3) a disaggregated CMAP downscaled by a statistical meteorological model tool at 1-km spatial resolution (DCMAP–MicroMet); and 4) a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulation with 5-km resolution (WRF-P). The validation metrics include spatial pattern, temporal pattern, error analysis with respect to observation data, and precipitation event verification indicators. The results indicate that 1) precipitation from the DCMAP product may not be suitable for water cycle studies at the watershed scale because of its coarser spatial resolution and 2) ITP-F, WRF-P, and DCMAP–MicroMet precipitation products generally show similar spatial–temporal patterns in HRB but have varying performances between different subbasins.

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Shi-Xin Wang
,
Hong-Chao Zuo
,
Fen Sun
,
Li-Yang Wu
,
Yixing Yin
, and
Jing-Jia Luo

Abstract

Dynamics of the East Asian spring rainband are investigated with a reanalysis dataset and station observations. Here, it is revealed that the rainband is anchored by external forcings. The midtropospheric jet core stays quasi-stationary around Japan. It has two branches in its entry region, which originate from the south and north flanks of the Tibetan Plateau and then run northeastward and southeastward, respectively. The southern branch advects warm air from the Tibetan–Hengduan Plateau northeastward, forming a rainband over southern China through causing adiabatic ascent motion and triggering diabatic feedback. The rainband is much stronger in spring than in autumn due to the stronger diabatic heating over the Tibetan–Hengduan Plateau, a more southward-displaced midtropospheric jet, and the resulting stronger warm advection over southern China. The northern jet branch forms a zonally elongated cold advection belt, which reaches a maximum around northern China, and then weakens and extends eastward to east of Japan. The westerly jet also steers strong disturbance activities roughly collocated with the cold advection belt via baroclinic instability. The high disturbance activities belt causes large cumulative warm advection (CWA) through drastically increasing extremely warm advection days on its eastern and south flanks, where weak cold advection prevails. CWA is more essential for monthly/seasonally rainfall than conventionally used time-average temperature advection because it is shown that strengthened warm advection can increase rainfall through positive diabatic feedback, while cold advection cannot cause negative rainfall. Thus, the rainband is collocated with the large CWA belt instead of the warm advection south of it. This rainband is jointed to the rainband over southern China, forming the long southwest–northeast-oriented East Asian spring rainband. Increasing moisture slightly displaces the rainband southeastward.

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