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Xueliang Wang

Abstract

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Xue-Liang Wang
and
Takio Murakami

Abstract

The longitude-time cross section of outgoing longwave radiation and zonal winds at the equator indicates a regular eastward propagation of interannual time-scale perturbations all the way from the Indian Ocean, across the maritime continent, to as far east as the eastern Pacific during the 5 years of 1979–83. These interannual perturbations also exhibit standing wave character. Associated with this are phase changes from the pre anti-ENSOF, in January 1982, via the mid-ENSO in January 1983, to the post anti-ENSO of December 1983. Both anti-ENSO and mid-ENSO are phase locked with the seasonal cycle. Anti-ENSO synoptics are the manifestation of anomalous enhancement of the normal winter circulation, whereas the mid-ENSO patterns reflect an anomalous weakening of the normal winter circulation. Thus, the mid-ENSO exhibits an approximate reversal of synoptics (anomaly) from the anti-ENSO phase.

Over the eastern North and South Pacific between about the dateline and 120°W, a key area for the 1982–83 ENSO, the main characteristics of the anti-ENSO and mid-ENSO phases are summarized as follows: Anti-ENSO is characterized by 1) an anomalously intensified indirect N–S vertical overturning with below normal equatorial convection in contrast to above normal rainfall over the extratropics, 2) an unusual intensification of upper oceanic troughs over both the North and South Pacific with prominent equatorial westerlies between them, and 3) substantial intraseasonal time-scale 200 mb disturbance activity. Mid-ENSO is characterized by 1) a direct N–S vertical overturning (anomaly) accompanied by equatorial convection and extratropical dry spells, 2) an unusual weakening of upper oceanic troughs (or anomalous upper anticyclones) with equatorial easterlies inhibiting intraseasonal disturbance activity, and 3) enhanced midlatitude westerlies poleward of twin anomalous anticyclones, facilitating above normal baroclinic disturbance activity.

The Japan–maritime continent–Australia region (100°–160°E) is another key area for a well-defined anomalous circulation reversal. Here, circulation changes are out of phase with those over the eastern North and South Pacific region. Less organized circulation reversals also take place over both the Afghanistan–Indian Ocean (40°–80°E) and Central America–South America (80°–40°W) regions.

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Kingtse C. Mo
and
Xueliang Wang

Abstract

No abstract available

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Chester F. Ropelewski
,
Michael S. Halpert
, and
Xueliang Wang

Abstract

Tropospheric biennial variability in several components of the Southern Oscillation (SO) is defined and described through analysis of observational data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), as well as through investigation of several SO index time series. The analysis suggests that the temporal behavior of the SO can be described in terms of three components: 1) a pervasive biennial pulse, which appears to be strong in both the Indian Ocean and the west Pacific surface zonal winds as well as in several SO indices, 2) the annual cycle, which tends to set the phase of biennial variability for the major SO excursions, and 3) a low-frequency, or residual, variability, which may be associated with temporal scales between large SO episodes. This study also supports recent papers in suggesting that complete models of the SO must include the Indian Ocean basin.

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Yongke Yang
,
Pengfeng Xiao
,
Xueliang Zhang
,
Xuezhi Feng
,
Jiangeng Wang
,
Nan Ye
,
Zuo Wang
,
Guangjun He
, and
Lizao Ye

Abstract

Near-surface air temperature lapse rate (NSATLR) is vital for hydrological simulation and mountain climate research in snowmelt-dominated regions. In this study, NSATLRs of two vertical zones (i.e., mountain grassland–coniferous forest belt and alpine meadow belt) of the Manasi River basin on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains were calculated using the near-surface air temperature data from 18 observation stations. Furthermore, temporal variations of NSATLRs of these two vertical zones at seasonal, monthly, and daily scales were analyzed, combined with altitudinal differences of local environments. The results show that the temporal variations of NSATLRs are different between these two vertical zones. The steepest monthly NSATLR occurs in July in the mountain grassland–coniferous forest belt and in April in the alpine meadow belt. In spring, summer, and autumn, the hourly NSATLRs in the mountain grassland–coniferous forest belt generally steepen with increasing solar radiation and vice versa, contrary to those in the alpine meadow belt. During winter, the hourly NSATLRs on sunny days are overall positive at night but negative during the day in the mountain grassland–coniferous forest belt. The findings of this study indicate that it is necessary to divide mountains with similar local environments to the study area into different vertical zones to accurately estimate NSATLR, and the use of a fixed NSATLR for different months and vertical zones is not suitable for snowmelt runoff modeling in snow-dominated regions such as the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains.

Significance Statement

This study aims to investigate the altitudinal and temporal variations of near-surface air temperature lapse rate (NSATLR) on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and how mountain environments affect NSATLR. This is important because altitudinal differences of mountain environments lead to different NSATLRs, and these altitudinal variations on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains are different from those on the Alps at the same latitude. Our results explain how altitudinal differences of mountain environments affect NSATLRs; hence, using a fixed NSATLR for different months and vertical zones is inappropriate, and estimating NSATLRs for different vertical zones is necessary.

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