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Zhi Li, Weidong Yu, Kuiping Li, Huiwu Wang, and Yanliang Liu

Abstract

Globally, the highest formation rate of super tropical cyclones (TCs) occurs over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the premonsoon transition period (PMT), but TC genesis has a low frequency here. TCs have occurred over the BoB in only 20 of the past 36 years of PMTs (1981–2016). This study investigates which environmental conditions modulate TC formation during the PMT over the BoB by conducting a quantitative analysis based on the genesis potential parameter, vorticity tendency equation, and specific humidity budget equation. The results show that there is a cyclonic anomaly in the TC genesis group compared to the non-TC genesis group, which is mainly due to the divergence term. A significant difference in vorticity contributes to TC formation over the BoB during the PMT. Furthermore, anomalous cyclonic flow enhances ascending motion, transporting moisture to the midlevel atmosphere. A change in specific humidity (SH) causes an increase in relative humidity, which contributes positively to TC formation. The vertical wind shear also makes a small positive contribution. In contrast to the previous three terms, the contribution from the instability term associated with 500- and 850-hPa air temperatures is negative and almost negligible. In addition, the synoptic-scale disturbance energy is more powerful in the TC genesis group than in the non-TC genesis group, which is favorable for TC breeding. Together, these conditions determine whether TCs are generated over the BoB during the PMT.

Open access
Kuiping Li, Lin Feng, Yanliang Liu, Yang Yang, Zhi Li, and Weidong Yu

Abstract

The intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) activate in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO), exhibiting distinct seasonal contrasts in active regions and propagating features. The seasonal northward migration of the ISO activity initiates in spring–early summer, composed of two stages. Strong ISO activity first penetrates into the northern Bay of Bengal (BoB) around mid-April, and then extends to the northern Arabian Sea (AS) by mid-May. The northward-propagating ISOs (NPISOs) during their initiation periods, which are referred to as the primary northward-propagating (PNP) events, are analyzed with regard to the BoB and the AS, respectively. In terms of the BoB PNP event, the northward branch could be observed only in the BoB, and the eastward movement is still clear as the winter ISOs. For the AS PNP event, a strong northward branch spreads across the wider northern IO, as obvious as the summer ISOs. The relative roles of the seasonal environmental fields in modulating the PNP events are diagnosed based on a 2.5-layer atmospheric model. The results indicate that the seasonal variations of the surface moisture dominantly regulate the BoB PNP event, while both the surface moisture and the vertical wind shear are necessary for the AS PNP event. Additionally, the leading BoB PNP event is hypothesized to potentially act as a precondition of the following AS PNP event in terms of their internal ISO reinitiation processes and in terms of creating a favorable easterly shear environment in the northern IO.

Open access