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Yongjiu Dai, Robert E. Dickinson, and Ying-Ping Wang

Abstract

The energy exchange, evapotranspiration, and carbon exchange by plant canopies depend on leaf stomatal control. The treatment of this control has been required by land components of climate and carbon models. Physiological models can be used to simulate the responses of stomatal conductance to changes in atmospheric and soil environments. Big-leaf models that treat a canopy as a single leaf tend to overestimate fluxes of CO2 and water vapor. Models that differentiate between sunlit and shaded leaves largely overcome these problems.

A one-layered, two-big-leaf submodel for photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature, and energy fluxes is presented in this paper. It includes 1) an improved two stream approximation model of radiation transfer of the canopy, with attention to singularities in its solution and with separate integrations of radiation absorption by sunlit and shaded fractions of canopy; 2) a photosynthesis–stomatal conductance model for sunlit and shaded leaves separately, and for the simultaneous transfers of CO2 and water vapor into and out of the leaf—leaf physiological properties (i.e., leaf nitrogen concentration, maximum potential electron transport rate, and hence photosynthetic capacity) vary throughout the plant canopy in response to the radiation–weight time-mean profile of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and the soil water limitation is applied to both maximum rates of leaf carbon uptake by Rubisco and electron transport, and the model scales up from leaf to canopy separately for all sunlit and shaded leaves; 3) a well-built quasi-Newton–Raphson method for simultaneous solution of temperatures of the sunlit and shaded leaves.

The model was incorporated into the Common Land Model (CLM) and is denoted CLM 2L. It was driven with observational atmospheric forcing from two forest sites [Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) and Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)] for 2 yr of simulation. The simulated fluxes by CLM 2L were compared with the observations, and with the results by the CLM with a single big-leaf scheme (CLM 1L) and by the CLM with the assimilation–stomatal conductance scheme of NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM). The results showed that CLM 2L was an improvement compared to the CLM 1L and the CLM for the test cases of tropical evergreen broadleaf land cover and coniferous boreal forest.

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Liming Zhou, Yuhong Tian, Haishan Chen, Yongjiu Dai, and Ronald A. Harris

Abstract

This paper uses the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to decompose satellite-derived nighttime land surface temperature (LST) for the period of 2003–11 into spatial patterns of different scales and thus to identify whether (i) there is a pattern of LST change associated with the development of wind farms and (ii) the warming effect over wind farms reported previously is an artifact of varied surface topography. Spatial pattern and time series analysis methods are also used to supplement and compare with the EOF results. Two equal-sized regions with similar topography in west-central Texas are chosen to represent the wind farm region (WFR) and nonwind farm region (NWFR), respectively. Results indicate that the nighttime warming effect seen in the first mode (EOF1) in WFR very likely represents the wind farm impacts due to its spatial coupling with the wind turbines, which are generally built on topographic high ground. The time series associated with the EOF1 mode in WFR also shows a persistent upward trend over wind farms from 2003 to 2011, corresponding to the increase of operating wind turbines with time. Also, the wind farm pixels show a warming effect that differs statistically significantly from their upwind high-elevation pixels and their downwind nonwind farm pixels at similar elevations, and this warming effect decreases with elevation. In contrast, NWFR shows a decrease in LST with increasing surface elevation and no warming effects over high-elevation ridges, indicating that the presence of wind farms in WFR has changed the LST–elevation relationship shown in NWFR. The elevation impacts on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST, if any, are much smaller and statistically insignificant than the strong and persistent signal of wind farm impacts. These results provide further observational evidence of the warming effect of wind farms reported previously.

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Fanglin Yang, Kenneth Mitchell, Yu-Tai Hou, Yongjiu Dai, Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Xin-Zhong Liang

Abstract

This study examines the dependence of surface albedo on solar zenith angle (SZA) over snow-free land surfaces using the intensive observations of surface shortwave fluxes made by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) in 1997–2005. Results are used to evaluate the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast Systems (GFS) parameterization and several new parameterizations derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. The influence of clouds on surface albedo and the albedo difference between morning and afternoon observations are also investigated. A new approach is taken to partition the observed upward flux so that the direct-beam and diffuse albedos can be separately computed. The study focused first on the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility site. It is found that the diffuse albedo prescribed in the NCEP GFS matched closely with the observations. The direct-beam albedo parameterized in the GFS is largely underestimated at all SZAs. The parameterizations derived from the MODIS product underestimated the direct-beam albedo at large SZAs and slightly overestimated it at small SZAs. Similar results are obtained from the analyses of observations at other stations. It is also found that the morning and afternoon dependencies of direct-beam albedo on SZA differ among the stations. Attempts are made to improve numerical model algorithms that parameterize the direct-beam albedo as a product of the direct-beam albedo at SZA = 60° (or the diffuse albedo), which varies with surface type or geographical location and/or season, and a function that depends only on SZA. A method is presented for computing the direct-beam albedos over these snow-free land points without referring to a particular land-cover classification scheme, which often differs from model to model.

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Yongjiu Dai, Wei Shangguan, Qingyun Duan, Baoyuan Liu, Suhua Fu, and Guoyue Niu

Abstract

The objective of this study is to develop a dataset of the soil hydraulic parameters associated with two empirical soil functions (i.e., a water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity) using multiple pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The dataset is designed specifically for regional land surface modeling for China. The authors selected 5 PTFs to derive the parameters in the Clapp and Hornberger functions and the van Genuchten and Mualem functions and 10 PTFs for soil water contents at capillary pressures of 33 and 1500 kPa. The inputs into the PTFs include soil particle size distribution, bulk density, and soil organic matter. The dataset provides 12 estimated parameters and their associated statistical values. The dataset is available at a 30 × 30 arc second geographical spatial resolution and with seven vertical layers to the depth of 1.38 m. The dataset has several distinct advantages even though the accuracy is unknown for lack of in situ and regional measurements. First, this dataset utilizes the best available soil characteristics dataset for China. The Chinese soil characteristics dataset was derived by using the 1:1 000 000 Soil Map of China and 8595 representative soil profiles. Second, this dataset represents the first attempt to estimate soil hydraulic parameters using PTFs directly for continental China at a high spatial resolution. Therefore, this dataset should capture spatial heterogeneity better than existing estimates based on lookup tables according to soil texture classes. Third, the authors derived soil hydraulic parameters using multiple PTFs to allow flexibility for data users to use the soil hydraulic parameters most preferable to or suitable for their applications.

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Xubin Zeng, Muhammad Shaikh, Yongjiu Dai, Robert E. Dickinson, and Ranga Myneni

Abstract

The Common Land Model (CLM), which results from a 3-yr joint effort among seven land modeling groups, has been coupled with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM3). Two 15-yr simulations of CCM3 coupled with CLM and the NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM), respectively, are used to document the relative impact of CLM versus LSM on land surface climate. It is found that CLM significantly reduces the summer cold bias of surface air temperature in LSM, which is associated with higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in CLM, and the winter warm bias over seasonally snow-covered regions, especially in Eurasia. CLM also significantly improves the simulation of the annual cycle of runoff in LSM. In addition, CLM simulates the snow mass better than LSM during the snow accumulation stage. These improvements are primarily caused by the improved parameterizations in runoff, snow, and other processes (e.g., turbulence) in CLM. The new land boundary data (e.g., leaf-area index, fractional vegetation cover, albedo) also contribute to the improvement in surface air temperature simulation over some regions. Overall, CLM has little impact on precipitation and surface net radiative fluxes.

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Xubin Zeng, Michael Barlage, Robert E. Dickinson, Yongjiu Dai, Guiling Wang, and Keith Oleson

Abstract

In arid and semiarid regions most of the solar radiation penetrates through the canopy and reaches the ground, and hence the turbulent exchange coefficient under canopy Cs becomes important. The use of a constant Cs that is only appropriate for thick canopies is found to be primarily responsible for the excessive warm bias of around 10 K in monthly mean ground temperature over these regions in version 2 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM2). New Cs formulations are developed for the consistent treatment of undercanopy turbulence for both thick and thin canopies in land models, and provide a preliminary solution of this problem.

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Hua Yuan, Robert E. Dickinson, Yongjiu Dai, Muhammad J. Shaikh, Liming Zhou, Wei Shangguan, and Duoying Ji

Abstract

The process of solar radiative transfer at the land surface is important to energy, water, and carbon balance, especially for vegetated areas. Currently the most commonly used two-stream model considers the plant functional types (PFTs) within a grid to be independent of each other and their leaves to be horizontally homogeneous. This assumption is unrealistic in most cases. To consider canopy three-dimensional (3D) structural effects, a new framework of 3D canopy radiative transfer model was developed and validated by numerical simulations and shows a good agreement. A comparison with the two-stream model in the offline Community Land Model (CLM4.0) shows that an increase of canopy absorption mainly happens with sparse vegetation or with multilayer canopies with a large sun zenith angle θ sun and is due to increases of the ground and sky shadows and of the optical pathlength because of the shadow overlapping between bushes and canopy layers. A decrease of canopy absorption occurs in densely vegetated areas with small θ sun. For a one-layer canopy, these decreases are due to crown shape effects that enhance the transmission through the canopy edge. For a multilayer canopy, aside from these shape effects, transmission is also increased by the decreased ground shadow due to the shadow overlapping between layers. Ground absorption usually changes with opposite sign as that of the canopy absorption. Somewhat lower albedos are found over most vegetated areas throughout the year. The 3D model also affects the calculation of the fraction of sunlit leaves and their corresponding absorption.

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Lu Li, Yongjiu Dai, Wei Shangguan, Nan Wei, Zhongwang Wei, and Surya Gupta

Abstract

Accurate spatiotemporal predictions of surface soil moisture (SM) are important for many critical applications. Machine learning models provide a powerful method for building an accurate and reliable predictive model of SM. However, the models used in recent studies have some limitations, including lack of spatial autocorrelation (SAC), vague representation of important features, and primarily focused on the one-step forecast. Thus, we proposed an attention-based convolutional long short-term memory model (AttConvLSTM) for multistep forecasting. The model includes three layers, spatial compression, axial attention, and encoder–decoder prediction, which are used for compressing spatial information, feature extraction, and multistep prediction, respectively. The model was trained using surface SM from the Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 product at 18-km spatial resolution over the United States. The results show that AttConvLSTM predicts 24 h ahead SM with mean R 2 and RMSE is equal to 0.82 and 0.02, respectively. Compared with LSTM, AttConvLSTM improves the model performance over 73.6% of regions, with an improvement of 8.4% and 17.4% in R2 and RMSE, respectively. The performance of the model is mainly influenced by temporal autocorrelation (TAC). Moreover, we also highlight the importance of SAC on model performance, especially over regions with high SAC and low TAC. Our model is also competent for SM predictions from several hours to several days, which could be a useful tool for predicting all meteorological variables and forecasting extremes.

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Gordon B. Bonan, Keith W. Oleson, Mariana Vertenstein, Samuel Levis, Xubin Zeng, Yongjiu Dai, Robert E. Dickinson, and Zong-Liang Yang

Abstract

The land surface parameterization used with the community climate model (CCM3) and the climate system model (CSM1), the National Center for Atmospheric Research land surface model (NCAR LSM1), has been modified as part of the development of the next version of these climate models. This new model is known as the community land model (CLM2). In CLM2, the surface is represented by five primary subgrid land cover types (glacier, lake, wetland, urban, vegetated) in each grid cell. The vegetated portion of a grid cell is further divided into patches of up to 4 of 16 plant functional types, each with its own leaf and stem area index and canopy height. The relative area of each subgrid unit, the plant functional type, and leaf area index are obtained from 1-km satellite data. The soil texture dataset allows vertical profiles of sand and clay. Most of the physical parameterizations in the model were also updated. Major model differences include: 10 layers for soil temperature and soil water with explicit treatment of liquid water and ice; a multilayer snowpack; runoff based on the TOPMODEL concept; new formulation of ground and vegetation fluxes; and vertical root profiles from a global synthesis of ecological studies. Simulations with CCM3 show significant improvements in surface air temperature, snow cover, and runoff for CLM2 compared to LSM1. CLM2 generally warms surface air temperature in all seasons compared to LSM1, reducing or eliminating many cold biases. Annual precipitation over land is reduced from 2.35 mm day−1 in LSM1 to 2.14 mm day−1 in CLM2. The hydrologic cycle is also different. Transpiration and ground evaporation are reduced. Leaves and stems evaporate more intercepted water annually in CLM2 than LSM1. Global runoff from land increases from 0.75 mm day−1 in LSM1 to 0.84 mm day−1 in CLM2. The annual cycle of runoff is greatly improved in CLM2, especially in arctic and boreal regions where the model has low runoff in cold seasons when the soil is frozen and high runoff during the snowmelt season. Most of the differences between CLM2 and LSM1 are attributed to particular parameterizations rather than to different surface datasets. Important processes include: multilayer snow, frozen water, interception, soil water limitation to latent heat, and higher aerodynamic resistances to heat exchange from ground.

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Xin-Zhong Liang, Hyun I. Choi, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Yongjiu Dai, Everette Joseph, Julian X. L. Wang, and Praveen Kumar

Abstract

This paper utilizes the best available quality data from multiple sources to develop consistent surface boundary conditions (SBCs) for mesoscale regional climate model (RCM) applications. The primary SBCs include 1) fields of soil characteristic (bedrock depth, and sand and clay fraction profiles), which for the first time have been consistently introduced to define 3D soil properties; 2) fields of vegetation characteristic fields (land-cover category, and static fractional vegetation cover and varying leaf-plus-stem-area indices) to represent spatial and temporal variations of vegetation with improved data coherence and physical realism; and 3) daily sea surface temperature variations based on the most appropriate data currently available or other value-added alternatives. For each field, multiple data sources are compared to quantify uncertainties for selecting the best one or merged to create a consistent and complete spatial and temporal coverage. The SBCs so developed can be readily incorporated into any RCM suitable for U.S. climate and hydrology modeling studies, while the data processing and validation procedures can be more generally applied to construct SBCs for any specific domain over the globe.

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