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Young-Hwa Byun and Song-You Hong

Abstract

The impact of boundary layer (BL) processes on simulated tropical precipitation was studied using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Medium-Range Forecast (MRF) Model. A new BL scheme, which is a nonlocal mixing concept of Noh et al. after Troen and Mahrt, was successfully incorporated into the MRF Model. In this study, simulations with 10-member ensembles were conducted for boreal summers of normal, El Niño, and La Niña years, respectively. In particular, the authors focused on the impact on tropical rainfall of the new BL scheme when two different convection schemes are utilized respectively in the model.

The new BL scheme improves simulated tropical precipitation overall and in particular reduces the simulated rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. This reduction over the eastern Pacific is a direct effect of the new BL scheme resulting in less mixing of heat and moisture and is irrespective of the convection scheme. The effect of BL processes over the western Pacific, however, is indirectly related to the change of the Walker circulation and highly dependent on the convection scheme selected.

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Young-Hwa Byun and Song-You Hong

Abstract

This study describes a revised approach for the subgrid-scale convective properties of a moist convection scheme in a global model and evaluates its effects on a simulated model climate. The subgrid-scale convective processes tested in this study comprise three components: 1) the random selection of cloud top, 2) the inclusion of convective momentum transport, and 3) a revised large-scale destabilization effect considering synoptic-scale forcing in the cumulus convection scheme of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction medium-range forecast model. Each component in the scheme has been evaluated within a single-column model (SCM) framework forced by the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment data. The impact of the changes in the scheme on seasonal predictions has been examined for the boreal summers of 1996, 1997, and 1999. In the SCM simulations, an experiment that includes all the modifications reproduces the typical convective heating and drying feature. The simulated surface rainfall is in good agreement with the observed precipitation. Random selection of the cloud top effectively moistens and cools the upper troposphere, and it induces drying and warming below the cloud-top level due to the cloud–radiation feedback. However, the two other components in the revised scheme do not play a significant role in the SCM simulations. On the other hand, the role of each modification component in the scheme is significant in the ensemble seasonal simulations. The random selection process of the cloud top preferentially plays an important role in the adjustment of the thermodynamic profile in a manner similar to that in the SCM framework. The inclusion of convective momentum transport in the scheme weakens the meridional circulation. The revised large-scale destabilization process plays an important role in the modulation of the meridional circulation when this process is combined with other processes; on the other hand, this process does not induce significant changes in large-scale fields by itself. Consequently, the experiment that involves all the modifications shows a significant improvement in the seasonal precipitation, thereby highlighting the importance of nonlinear interaction between the physical processes in the model and the simulated climate.

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Suhee Park, Song-You Hong, and Young-Hwa Byun

Abstract

In this paper, the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and its possible link to dynamical seasonal predictability within a general circulation model framework is investigated. Two experiments with different convection scheme algorithms, namely, the simplified Arakawa–Schubert (SAS) and the relaxed Arakawa–Schubert (RAS) convection algorithms, were designed to compare seasonal simulations from 1979 to 2002 on a seasonal model intercomparison project (SMIP)-type simulation test bed. Furthermore, the wave characteristics (wave intensity, period, and propagation) of the simulated ISO signal provided by the model with two different convection schemes for extended boreal summers from 1997 to 2004 were compared to the observational ISO signal. Precipitation in the boreal summer was fairly well simulated by the model irrespective of the convection scheme used, but the RAS run outperformed the SAS run with respect to tabulated skill scores. Decomposition of the interannual variability of boreal summer precipitation based on observations and model results demonstrates that the seasonal predictability of precipitation is dominated by the intraseasonal component over the warm pool area and the SST-forced signal over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, implying that the seasonal mean anomalies are more predictable under active ISO conditions as well as strong ENSO conditions. Comparison of the ISO simulations with the observations revealed that the main features, such as the intensity of precipitation variance in the intraseasonal time scale and the evolution of propagating ISOs, were reproduced fairly well by the model; however, the wave characteristics associated with the ISO signals were better captured by the experiment with the RAS scheme than the SAS scheme. This study further suggests that accurate simulation of the ISO can improve the seasonal predictability of dynamical seasonal prediction systems.

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Minkyu Lee, Dong-Hyun Cha, Myoung-Seok Suh, Eun-Chul Chang, Joong-Bae Ahn, Seung-Ki Min, and Young-Hwa Byun

Abstract

This study evaluated tropical cyclone (TC) activity simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs) incorporated in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) framework with two different horizontal resolutions. Evaluation experiments with two RCMs (RegCM4 and MM5) forced by reanalysis data were conducted over the CORDEX-East Asia domain for phases I and II. The main difference between phases I and II is horizontal resolution (50 and 25 km). The 20-yr (1989–2008) mean performances of the experiments were investigated in terms of TC genesis, track, intensity, and TC-induced precipitation. In general, the simulated TC activities over the western North Pacific (WNP) varied depending on the model type and horizontal resolution. For both models, higher horizontal resolution improved the simulation of TC tracks near the coastal regions of East Asia, whereas the coarser horizontal resolution led to underestimated TC genesis compared with the best track data because of greater convective precipitation and enhanced atmospheric stabilization. In addition, the increased horizontal resolution prominently improved the simulation of TCs landfalling in East Asia and associated precipitation around coastal regions. This finding implies that high-resolution RCMs can improve the simulation of TC activities over the WNP (i.e., added value by increasing model resolution); thus, they have an advantage in climate change assessment studies.

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Seung-Ki Min, Min-Gyu Seong, Dong-Hyun Cha, Minkyu Lee, Fraser C. Lott, Andrew Ciavarella, Peter A. Stott, Maeng-Ki Kim, Kyung-On Boo, and Young-Hwa Byun
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