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Tae-Young Lee, Young-Youn Park, and Yuh-Lang Lin


Numerical simulations and the analysis of observational data are employed to understand the mesoscale cyclogenesis in a polar airstream that occurred over the sea to the east of the Korean peninsula on 28–29 January 1995. The observational analysis shows that a mesoscale low develops over the southeastern East Sea (Japan Sea) on 29 January 1995. Satellite imagery also indicates that a meso-β-scale vortex forms on the lee side of the northern Korean mountain complex (KMC), which is located in the northern Korean peninsula, and that a meso-α-scale cyclone develops over the southeastern East Sea at a later time. The mesoscale cyclone forms in the lower troposphere with strong baroclinicity and cyclonic circulation under the influence of an upper-level synoptic-scale cold vortex.

Numerical simulation has captured major features of the observed cyclogenesis very well. The cyclogenesis occurs in a progressive manner. Basically, four distinctive stages of the cyclogenesis are identified. 1) First, a surface pressure trough forms on the lee side of the KMC under a northwesterly synoptic-scale flow that is deflected anticyclonically over the KMC. 2) Second, the lee trough deepens further into a strong convergence zone and a meso-β-scale vortex. 3) Next, the meso-β-scale vortex develops into a meso-α-scale vortex as the vortex and the trough begin to move southeastward from the lee of the KMC. 4) Finally, the surface trough deepens into a closed low and the meso-α-scale vortex becomes collocated with this deepening surface low to form a meso-α-scale cyclone over the southeastern East Sea.

Several sensitivity experiments are performed to isolate the effects of a topography, warmer sea surface, diurnal thermal forcing, and latent heat release. During stages 1 and 2, it is found that the KMC and low-level baroclinicity are responsible for generating the strong lee trough and vortex. During stage 3, the development of the meso-α-scale vortex is brought on by the tilting of horizontal vorticity and vertical stretching in a synoptic-scale cyclonic circulation. In the final stage, the condensational heating plays the key role for the development of the meso-α-scale cyclone under the influence of an upper-level synoptic-scale cold vortex. The presence of the warm sea surface is found to be a necessary condition for the development of a polar air convergence zone and the mesoscale cyclone. It is also found that the low-level baroclinicity is essential for the present case of mesoscale cyclogenesis.

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Young-Hyang Park, Jong-Hwan Yoon, Yong-Hoon Youn, and Frédéric Vivier


On the basis of a new East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) index and by analyzing the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and different atmospheric and oceanic factors in winter, this study investigates the causes of the recent unusual warming in the western North Pacific Ocean. Analyses presented here emphasize the dual contribution from the atmosphere and ocean to the local SST variability, with the relative importance of each contributor varying with the period and place. During the period 1970–89, the EAWM, controlled mostly by the Siberian high, is predominantly responsible for the SST variability in most of the western North Pacific, whereas in the period 1990–2005 ocean dynamics become increasingly important in most places or even dominant in the Kuroshio–Oyasio Extension (KOE) region. The delayed response of the KOE SST to basinwide wind stress curl forcing via Rossby waves is epoch dependent and is significant at lags of 1, 3, and 4 yr before 1990 but only at 1 yr afterward. This epoch dependency of the impact of Rossby waves is related to the different locations of the centers of action of wind stress curl in the midlatitude North Pacific between the two epochs. In addition, mean advection of the EAWM-driven anomalous SST from the southern East China Sea, which can be transported into the KOE region in about a year by the Kuroshio, likely affects the KOE SST lagged by 1 yr. The strongest positive SST trend observed in the western North Pacific results from the combined effects of the abrupt weakening of the EAWM due to the unprecedented decline of the Siberian high and the increasing role of the ocean. The latter is best evidenced by the 1-yr delayed response of the western North Pacific via the gyre circulation adjustment to the basinwide decadal-scale wind stress curl change associated with the northward shift of the strengthened Aleutian low.

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Philippe Bougeault, Zoltan Toth, Craig Bishop, Barbara Brown, David Burridge, De Hui Chen, Beth Ebert, Manuel Fuentes, Thomas M. Hamill, Ken Mylne, Jean Nicolau, Tiziana Paccagnella, Young-Youn Park, David Parsons, Baudouin Raoult, Doug Schuster, Pedro Silva Dias, Richard Swinbank, Yoshiaki Takeuchi, Warren Tennant, Laurence Wilson, and Steve Worley

Ensemble forecasting is increasingly accepted as a powerful tool to improve early warnings for high-impact weather. Recently, ensembles combining forecasts from different systems have attracted a considerable level of interest. The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Globa l Ensemble (TIGGE) project, a prominent contribution to THORPEX, has been initiated to enable advanced research and demonstration of the multimodel ensemble concept and to pave the way toward operational implementation of such a system at the international level. The objectives of TIGGE are 1) to facilitate closer cooperation between the academic and operational meteorological communities by expanding the availability of operational products for research, and 2) to facilitate exploring the concept and benefits of multimodel probabilistic weather forecasts, with a particular focus on high-impact weather prediction. Ten operational weather forecasting centers producing daily global ensemble forecasts to 1–2 weeks ahead have agreed to deliver in near–real time a selection of forecast data to the TIGGE data archives at the China Meteorological Agency, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The volume of data accumulated daily is 245 GB (1.6 million global fields). This is offered to the scientific community as a new resource for research and education. The TIGGE data policy is to make each forecast accessible via the Internet 48 h after it was initially issued by each originating center. Quicker access can also be granted for field experiments or projects of particular interest to the World Weather Research Programme and THORPEX. A few examples of initial results based on TIGGE data are discussed in this paper, and the case is made for additional research in several directions.

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