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Yu-Heng Tseng and David E. Dietrich

Abstract

A purely z-coordinate Dietrich/Center for Air Sea Technology (DieCAST) ocean model is applied to the Dynamics of Overflow Mixing and Entrainment (DOME) idealized bottom density current problem that is patterned after the Denmark Strait. The numerical results show that the background viscosity plays a more important role than the chosen coordinate system in the entrainment and mixing if the background viscosity is not small enough. Both higher horizontal viscosity and coarser resolution leads to slower along-slope propagation. Reducing vertical mixing parameterization also leads to slower along-slope propagation with thicker plume size vertically. The simulation gives consistent results for the moderate- and fine-resolution runs. At a very coarse grid the dense water descends more slowly and is mainly dominated by diffusion. Time-averaged downstream transport and entrainment are not very sensitive to viscosity after the flow reaches its quasi-steady status. However, more realistic eddies and flow structures are found in low-viscosity runs. The results show good convergence of the resolved flow as expected and clarify the effects of numerical dissipation/mixing on overflow modeling. Larger numerical dissipation is not required nor recommended in z-coordinate models.

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Chih-Chieh Young, Yu-Chiao Liang, Yu-Heng Tseng, and Chun-Hoe Chow

Abstract

The Robert–Asselin–Williams (RAW) filtered leapfrog scheme is implemented and tested in the Taiwan multiscale community ocean model (TIMCOM). The characteristics of the RAW filter are carefully examined through two benchmark tests (the classical model problem-oscillation equation with further consideration of the dissipation effect, and the 1D linearized shallow-water equations). Particularly, the effect of the RAW filter upon the 2Δx wave instability due to spatial truncation errors is addressed. TIMCOM is then applied to simulate the coastally trapped internal Kelvin waves and global ocean circulations, showing the practical improvement over the Robert–Asselin (RA) filter in the short- and long-term model integrations. The large mean differences in some major current systems suggest the potential impacts on the oceanic instability where the numerical dissipation may interfere with the physical one. The characteristic analysis and model results here indicate the significant advantage of the RAW-filtered leapfrog time-stepping scheme for accurate ocean modeling.

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Yu-heng Tseng, Ruiqiang Ding, Sen Zhao, Yi-chun Kuo, and Yu-chiao Liang

Abstract

This study investigates the modulation of North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) variability upon initiation of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The data show that the initiation of EAWM in the Philippine Sea strongly connects to the southern lobe variability of the NPO in January followed by a basin-scale oceanic Victoria mode pattern. No apparent connection was found for the northern lobe of the NPO when the ENSO signals are removed. The strengthening of the EAWM in November interacts with the Kuroshio front and generates a low-level heating source in the Philippine Sea. Significant Rossby wave sources are then formed in the lower to midtroposphere. Wave ray tracing analyses confirm the atmospheric teleconnection established by the Rossby wave propagation in the mid- to upper troposphere. Analyses of the origin of wave trajectories from the Philippine Sea show a clear eastward propagating pathway that affects the southern lobe of the NPO from the southern lobe of the western Pacific pattern at 500 hPa and above on the time scale of 20 days. No ray trajectories from the lower troposphere can propagate eastward to influence the central-eastern subtropical Pacific. The wave propagation process is further supported by the coupled model experiments.

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Yu-Heng Tseng, Shou-Hung Chien, Jiming Jin, and Norman L. Miller

Abstract

The air–land–sea interaction in the vicinity of Monterey Bay, California, is simulated and investigated using a new Integrated Regional Model System (I-RMS). This new model realistically resolves coastal processes and submesoscale features that are poorly represented in atmosphere–ocean general circulation models where systematic biases are seen in the long-term model integration. The current I-RMS integrates version 3.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and version 3.0 of the Community Land Model with an advanced coastal ocean model, based on the nonhydrostatic Monterey Bay Area Regional Ocean Model. The daily land–sea-breeze circulations and the Santa Cruz eddy are fully resolved using high-resolution grids in the coastal margin. In the ocean, coastal upwelling and submesoscale gyres are also well simulated with this version of the coupled I-RMS. Comparison with observations indicates that the high-resolution, improved representation of ocean dynamics in the I-RMS increases the surface moisture flux and the resulting lower-atmospheric water vapor, a primary controlling mechanism for the enhancement of regional coastal fog formation, particularly along the West Coast of the conterminous United States. The I-RMS results show the importance of detailed ocean feedbacks due to coastal upwelling in the marine atmospheric boundary layer.

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Han-Ching Chen, Chung-Hsiung Sui, Yu-Heng Tseng, and Bohua Huang

Abstract

The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation, version 2.2.4 (SODA 2.2.4), analysis for the period of 1960–2010 is used to study the variability of Pacific subtropical cells (STCs) and its causal relation with tropical climate variability. Results show that the interior STC transport into the equatorial basin through 9°S and 9°N is well connected with equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) (9°S–9°N, 180°–90°W). The highest correlation at interannual time scales is contributed by the western interior STC transport within 160°E and 130°W. It is known that the ENSO recharge–discharge cycle experiences five stages: the recharging stage, recharged stage, warmest SST stage, discharging stage, and discharged stage. A correlation analysis of interior STC transport convergence, equatorial warm water volume (WWV), wind stress curl, and SST identifies the time intervals between the five stages, which are 8, 10, 2, and 8 months, respectively. A composite analysis for El Niño–developing and La Niña–developing events is also performed. The composited ENSO evolutions are in accordance with the recharge–discharge theory and the corresponding time lags between the above denoted five stages are 4–12, 6, 2, and 4 months, respectively. For stronger El Niño events, the discharge due to interior STC transport at 9°N terminates earlier than that at 9°S because of the southward migration of westerly winds following the El Niño peak phase. This study clarifies subsurface transport processes and their time intervals, which are useful for refinement of theoretical models and for evaluating coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model results.

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Qian Zou, Ruiqiang Ding, Jianping Li, Yu-heng Tseng, Zhaolu Hou, Tao Wen, and Kai Ji

Abstract

This study investigates the connection between the North Pacific Victoria mode (VM) during the boreal spring [February–April (FMA)] and the following boreal winter [January–March (JFM)] rainfall over South China (SC). The VM is defined as the second empirical orthogonal function mode (EOF2) of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (SSTAs) in the North Pacific poleward of 20°N. It is found that the boreal spring VM has a significant positive correlation with the following winter rainfall over SC. Analyses indicate that a strong positive VM during spring can induce El Niño during the following winter via an air–sea interaction, resulting in the generation of an anomalous anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNPAC). The anomalous southwesterlies along the southeast coast of East Asia associated with the WNPAC favor an abundant supply of water vapor and anomalous ascending motion over SC. As a result, winter rainfall over SC increases. A linear regression model based on the VM shows that the VM can act as an effective predictor of winter rainfall over SC about 1 year in advance. It also has a higher prediction skill than ENSO in predicting winter rainfall over SC.

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Han-Ching Chen, Chung-Hsiung Sui, Yu-Heng Tseng, and Bohua Huang

Abstract

This study investigates the sudden reversal of anomalous zonal equatorial transport above thermocline at the peak phase of ENSO. The oceanic processes associated with zonal transport are separated into low-frequency ENSO cycle and high-frequency oceanic wave processes. Both processes can generate a reversal of equatorial zonal current at the ENSO peak phase, which is a trigger for the rapid termination of ENSO events. For the low-frequency process, zonal transport exhibits slower and basinwide evolution. During the developing phase of El Niño (La Niña), eastward (westward) transport prevails in the central-eastern Pacific, which enhances ENSO. At the peak of ENSO, a basinwide reversal of the zonal transport resulting from the recharge–discharge process occurs and weakens the existing SST anomalies. High-frequency zonal transport presents clear eastward propagation related to Kelvin wave propagation at the equator, reflection at the eastern boundary, and the westward propagating Rossby waves. The major westerly wind bursts (easterly wind surges) occur in late boreal summer and fall with coincident downwelling (upwelling) Kelvin waves for El Niño (La Niña) events. After the peak of El Niño (La Niña), Kelvin waves reach the eastern boundary in boreal winter and reflect as off-equatorial Rossby waves; then, the zonal transport switches from eastward (westward) to westward (eastward). The high-frequency zonal transport can be represented by equatorial wave dynamics captured by the first three EOFs based on the high-pass-filtered equatorial thermocline. The transport anomaly during the decaying phase is dominated by the low-frequency process in El Niño. However, the transport anomaly is caused by both low- and high-frequency processes during La Niña.

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Yang Yu, Shu-Hua Chen, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xinyu Guo, Jie Shi, Guangliang Liu, Chao Zhang, Yi Xu, and Huiwang Gao

Abstract

The impacts of diurnal atmospheric forcing on the summer salinity change in the East China Sea are investigated using the Regional Ocean Modeling System, forced by the hourly and daily reanalysis of wind and insolation. The differences between the forcing of these two frequencies reveal a dipole pattern of salinity change with a positive salinity deviation (1–2 psu) offshore of the Yangtze River estuary, and a negative deviation (from −1 to −0.5 psu) along the Jiangsu Coast. Further dye tracking experiments confirm that diurnal forcing strengthened the northwestward longshore freshwater transport (NLFT) of the Yangtze River by 5.2 × 109 m3 and reduced the mean water age of 7 days. Sensitivity experiments using different forcing combinations suggest that the diurnal wind, that is, the land–sea breeze, is the key to developing the dipole pattern of salinity change and the NLFT. Through the experiment, the land–sea breeze induced a mean clockwise circulation offshore of the Yangtze River estuary. The above changes resulted from both the nonlinearity of wind stress averaging (i.e., the square nature of wind stress) and the baroclinic adjustment related to the diurnal salinity variation, which is directly connected to the diurnal swing of the Yangtze River front. The baroclinic adjustment generated a dipole pattern of vorticity changes offshore of the Yangtze River estuary and a coherent northwestward jet current strengthening the NLFT. These processes developed the summer dipole pattern of the salinity change.

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