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Ji Yang, Kun Zhao, Xingchao Chen, Anning Huang, Yuanyuan Zheng, and Kangyuan Sun


Using 5 years of operational Doppler radar, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning observations, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data, this study examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of and correlations between summer storm and lightning activity over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), with a focus on subseasonal variability and diurnal cycles. The spatiotemporal features of storm top, duration, maximum reflectivity, size, and cell-based vertical integrated liquid water were investigated using the Storm Cell Identification and Tracking algorithm. Our results revealed that there was high storm activity over the YRD, with weak diurnal variations during the mei-yu period. Specifically, storms were strongly associated with mei-yu fronts and exhibited a moderate size, duration, and intensity. On average, afternoon storms exhibited stronger reflectivity and higher storm tops than morning storms, as evidenced by the afternoon peak in CG lightning. The storm intensity strengthened in the post-mei-yu period, due to an increase in atmospheric instability; this was accompanied by a higher frequency of CG lighting. The diurnal cycles of storm frequency and CG lightning in the post-mei-yu period followed a unimodal pattern with an afternoon peak. This is attributable to increased thermodynamic instability in the afternoon, as little diurnal variation was observed for wind shear and moisture. An inverse correlation between lightning occurrence and mean peak current (MPC) for negative CG lightning was evident during the pre-mei-yu and mei-yu periods. The diurnal variation in MPC for negative CG lightning agreed well with that for storm intensity.

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Jiankai Zhang, Fei Xie, Wenshou Tian, Yuanyuan Han, Kequan Zhang, Yulei Qi, Martyn Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Jinlong Huang, and Jianchuan Shu


The influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere in winter is analyzed using observations and an offline chemical transport model. Positive ozone anomalies are found at low latitudes (0°–30°N) and there are three negative anomaly centers in the northern mid- and high latitudes during positive AO phases. The negative anomalies are located in the Arctic middle stratosphere (~30 hPa; 70°–90°N), Arctic upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS; 150–300 hPa, 70°–90°N), and midlatitude UTLS (70–300 hPa, 30°–60°N). Further analysis shows that anomalous dynamical transport related to AO variability primarily controls these ozone changes. During positive AO events, positive ozone anomalies between 0° and 30°N at 50–150 hPa are related to the weakened meridional transport of the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) and enhanced eddy transport. The negative ozone anomalies in the Arctic middle stratosphere are also caused by the weakened BDC, while the negative ozone anomalies in the Arctic UTLS are caused by the increased tropopause height, weakened BDC vertical transport, weaker exchange between the midlatitudes and the Arctic, and enhanced ozone depletion via heterogeneous chemistry. The negative ozone anomalies in the midlatitude UTLS are mainly due to enhanced eddy transport from the midlatitudes to the latitudes equatorward of 30°N, while the transport of ozone-poor air from the Arctic to the midlatitudes makes a minor contribution. Interpreting AO-related variability of stratospheric ozone, especially in the UTLS, would be helpful for the prediction of tropospheric ozone variability caused by the AO.

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Hanqin Tian, Jia Yang, Chaoqun Lu, Rongting Xu, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Almut Arneth, Jinfeng Chang, Guangsheng Chen, Philippe Ciais, Stefan Gerber, Akihiko Ito, Yuanyuan Huang, Fortunat Joos, Sebastian Lienert, Palmira Messina, Stefan Olin, Shufen Pan, Changhui Peng, Eri Saikawa, Rona L. Thompson, Nicolas Vuichard, Wilfried Winiwarter, Sönke Zaehle, Bowen Zhang, Kerou Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu


Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and also an ozone-depleting substance that has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Large estimation uncertainty remains on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of N2O fluxes and the key drivers of N2O production in the terrestrial biosphere. Some terrestrial biosphere models have been evolved to account for nitrogen processes and to show the capability to simulate N2O emissions from land ecosystems at the global scale, but large discrepancies exist among their estimates primarily because of inconsistent input datasets, simulation protocol, and model structure and parameterization schemes. Based on the consistent model input data and simulation protocol, the global N2O Model Intercomparison Project (NMIP) was initialized with 10 state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models that include nitrogen (N) cycling. Specific objectives of NMIP are to 1) unravel the major N cycling processes controlling N2O fluxes in each model and identify the uncertainty sources from model structure, input data, and parameters; 2) quantify the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of global and regional N2O fluxes from the preindustrial period (1860) to present and attribute the relative contributions of multiple environmental factors to N2O dynamics; and 3) provide a benchmarking estimate of N2O fluxes through synthesizing the multimodel simulation results and existing estimates from ground-based observations, inventories, and statistical and empirical extrapolations. This study provides detailed descriptions for the NMIP protocol, input data, model structure, and key parameters, along with preliminary simulation results. The global and regional N2O estimation derived from the NMIP is a key component of the global N2O budget synthesis activity jointly led by the Global Carbon Project and the International Nitrogen Initiative.

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