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Zhaoyun Chen, Yuwu Jiang, Jia Wang, and Wenping Gong

Abstract

Satellite images show that the Pearl River plume is entrained into the upwelling front in the northeastern South China Sea. To understand the processes and extend to other coastal zones, an idealized numerical model is used to investigate the upwelling dynamics in response to the arrival of the river plume. Upon forcing by an upwelling-favorable wind, the model reproduces the upwelling frontal jet with a stratified water column, which takes the river plume far away from the mouth of the estuary. The river plume introduces additional upwelling and downwelling at its inshore and offshore sides (defined as plume-related secondary upwelling circulation), respectively. For the initially unstratified water column, the plume-related secondary upwelling circulation is stronger and extends to deeper water than for the stratified condition. The surface boundary layer thins and the offshore current intensifies in the river plume. The variations in wind-driven current over the deep-water shelf in different stratified conditions are modulated by the vertical profiles of the eddy viscosity, which are shown by a one-dimensional numerical model. Offshore transport is reinforced when the head of the river plume arrives. Thereafter, it is changed by the cross-shore baroclinic geostrophic component of velocity, due to alongshore density variation by the river plume. The horizontal gradient of stress on the two sides of the river plume is responsible for the plume-related secondary upwelling circulation owing to different stress decay scales inside and outside the river plume.

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Enhui Liao, Lie Yauw Oey, Xiao-Hai Yan, Li Li, and Yuwu Jiang

Abstract

In winter, an offshore flow of the coastal current can be inferred from satellite and in situ data over the western Taiwan Bank. The dynamics related to this offshore flow are examined here using observations as well as analytical and numerical models. The currents can be classified into three regimes. The downwind (i.e., southward) cold coastal current remains attached to the coast when the northeasterly wind stress is stronger than a critical value depending on the upwind (i.e., northward) large-scale pressure gradient force. By contrast, an upwind warm current appears over the Taiwan Bank when the wind stress is less than the critical pressure gradient force. The downwind coastal current and upwind current converge and the coastal current deflects offshore onto the bank during a moderate wind. Analysis of the vorticity balance shows that the offshore transport is a result of negative bottom stress curl that is triggered by the positive vorticity of the two opposite flows. The negative bottom stress curl is reinforced by the gentle slope over the bank, which enhances the offshore current. Composite analyses using satellite observations show cool waters with high chlorophyll in the offshore current under moderate wind. The results of composite analyses support the model findings and may explain the high productivity over the western bank in winter.

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