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Ming Li, Jiping Liu, Zhenzhan Wang, Hui Wang, Zhanhai Zhang, Lin Zhang, and Qinghua Yang

Abstract

Reanalysis projects and satellite data analysis have provided surface wind over the global ocean. To assess how well one can reconstruct the variations of surface wind in the data-sparse Southern Ocean, sea surface wind speed data from 1) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy reanalysis (NCEP–DOE), 2) the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim), 3) National Climate Data Center (NCDC) blended sea winds, and 4) cross-calibrated multiplatform (CCMP) ocean surface velocity are evaluated. First, the accuracy of sea surface wind speed is validated with quality-controlled in situ measurements from research vessels. The results show that the CCMP value is closer to the ship observations than other products, whereas the NCEP–DOE value has the largest systematic positive bias. All four products show large positive biases under weak wind regimes, good agreement with the ship observations under moderate wind regimes, and large negative biases under high wind regimes. Second, the consistency and discrepancy of sea surface wind speed across different products is examined. The intercomparisons suggest that these products show encouraging agreement in the spatial distribution of the annual-mean sea surface wind speed. The largest across-data scatter is found in the central Indian sector of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which is comparable to its respective interannual variability. The monthly-mean correlations between pairs of products are high. However, differing from the decadal trends of NCEP–DOE, NCDC, and CCMP that show an increase of sea surface wind speed in the Antarctic Circumpolar region, ERA-Interim has an opposite sign there.

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Ruanyu Zhang, Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Paula J. Brown, Wesley Berg, and Zhenzhan Wang

Abstract

This study focuses on the tropical cyclone rainfall retrieval using FY-3B Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI) brightness temperatures (Tbs). The GPROF, a fully parametric approach based on the Bayesian scheme, is adapted for use by the MWRI sensor. The MWRI GPROF algorithm is an ocean-only scheme used to estimate rain rates and hydrometeor vertical profiles. An a priori database is constructed from MWRI simulated Tbs, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) combined data, and ancillary data resulting in about 100 000 rainfall profiles. The performance of MWRI retrievals is consistent with DPR observations, even though MWRI retrievals slightly overestimate low rain rates and underestimate high rain rates. The total bias of MWRI retrievals is less than 13% of the mean rain rate of DPR precipitation. Statistical comparisons over GMI GPROF, GMI Hurricane GPROF (HGPROF), and MWRI GPROF retrievals show MWRI GPROF retrievals are consistent in terms of spatial distribution and rain estimates for TCs compared with the other two estimates. In terms of the global precipitation, the mean rain rates at different distances from best track locations for five TC categories are used to identify substantial differences between mean MWRI and GMI GPROF retrievals. After correcting the biases between MWRI and GMI retrievals, the performance of MWRI retrievals shows slight overestimate for light rain rates while underestimating rain rates near the eyewall for category 4 and 5 only.

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