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Fabienne Schmid, Elena Gagarina, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

their small spatial scales, they still pose an important parameterization problem, especially in climate simulations but also in numerical weather prediction. Further improvements of IGW parameterizations require deepened understanding of all aspects of the IGW life cycle, from sources to dissipation and the corresponding large-scale flow effects. Measurements are needed for this as well as high-resolution numerical weather simulations using codes that get as close to real nature as possible. In

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

. 2006 ), radars (e.g., Stober et al. 2013 ), airglow imagers (e.g., Suzuki et al. 2010 ), noctilucent cloud images (e.g., Pautet et al. 2011 ), satellite measurements (e.g., Alexander et al. 2008 ), radiosonde soundings (e.g., Dörnbrack et al. 1999 ; Zhang and Yi 2005 ), and rocket soundings (e.g., Rapp et al. 2004 ). However, these instruments are limited to particular altitude ranges and are only sensitive to a distinct part of the gravity wave spectrum ( Gardner and Taylor 1998 ; Preusse

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Tyler Mixa, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Markus Rapp

from the Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM), which remained stationary for several hours ( Pautet et al. 2016 ). Simultaneous lidar measurements of sodium mixing ratios in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) indicate peak gravity wave amplitudes of ≈±10 K at z ≈ 83 km and λ x ≈ 40 km. Later flight legs show strong indications of gravity wave breaking, with apparent vortex ring formation and momentum fluxes estimated over 320 m 2 s −2 ( Pautet et al. 2016 ). Eckermann et al

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