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Robert E. Davis, Thomas H. Painter, Rick Forster, Don Cline, Richard Armstrong, Terry Haran, Kyle McDonald, and Kelly Elder

1. Introduction Current spaceborne sensors have limitations in remotely sensing some aspects of the cryosphere, particularly at frequent repeat intervals and fine-to-moderate spatial resolution. No single measurement system provides the key properties—snow extent, snow water equivalent, and freeze–thaw state—that hydrologists and climate modelers need. The Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) had the objective of acquiring and compiling spaceborne remote sensing, airborne remote sensing, and

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

Coauthors , 2003 : An overview of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-2002). Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment III (SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 4894), 361–372 . Deems, J. S. , Fassnacht S. R. , and Elder K. J. , 2006 : Fractal distribution of snow depth from lidar data. J. Hydrometeor. , 7 , 285 – 297 . 10.1175/JHM487.1 Elder, K. J. , Dozier J. , and Michaelsen J. , 1991 : Snow accumulation and distribution in an alpine watershed. Water Resour

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Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Kelly Elder, and Donald W. Cline

1. Introduction Snow is an integral component of Earth’s atmospheric, hydrologic, and ecologic systems. In many high-latitude and mountainous regions of the world, most of the annual precipitation falls as snow (e.g., Serreze et al. 1999 ). Of the various features that influence Earth’s surface radiation balance, the location and duration of snow cover comprise two of the most important seasonal variables. In the Northern Hemisphere, the mean monthly land area covered by snow ranges from 5

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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

1. Introduction Water from melting snow is a critical resource in western North America and other similar regions of the world. Across the intermountain western United States, most of the landscape is arid or semiarid, receiving less than 30 cm of annual precipitation. About 15% of the land area is above 2000 m, and it generally receives substantially more annual precipitation, 70%–90% of which has historically fallen as snow ( Anderson et al. 1976 ). The seasonal snow cover has acted as a

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