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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

/detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 2784 – 2802 . Lander , M. , and G. J. Holland , 1993 : On the interaction of tropical-cyclone-scale vortices. I. Observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 119 , 1347 – 1361 . Li , X. , and B. Wang , 1994 : Barotropic dynamics of the beta gyres and beta drift. J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 746 – 756 . Lin , Y-L. , R. D. Farley , and H. D. Orville , 1983 : Bulk parameterization of the snow

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Jonathan Zawislak and Edward J. Zipser

observational data between the west coast of Africa and the Caribbean. The first major field campaign in the region, the Global Atmospheric Research Program’s (GARP’s) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) in 1974, utilized its high temporal and spatial resolution database to explore the interactions between small-scale tropical features and the larger-scale circulations. The most recent field campaign, staged primarily over northern Africa, the international African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA

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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

sorely needed to better understand the feedback between convection and AEWs as well as the role of AEWs in determining the interannual variability of precipitation during the West African monsoon ( Thorncroft and Hodges 2001 ; Berry and Thorncroft 2005 ). During the summer of 2006, a large number of resources were deployed in West Africa and the eastern Atlantic to better understand the West African monsoon and its interactions across a variety of temporal and spatial scales. The 2006 field program

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Edward K. Vizy and Kerry H. Cook

top of the atmosphere set at 50 hPa, and a 30-km grid spacing with a model time step of 1 min. The domain is large ( Fig. 1 ) to encompass much of northern and tropical Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. The model is run in synoptic mode with initial and lateral boundary conditions for temperature, horizontal wind, geopotential height, relative humidity, land surface temperature, and soil moisture taken from the 6-hourly 1.125° ECMWF operational reanalysis. SSTs are prescribed and updated every 6 h as

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

that deficiencies in the modeling of moisture and diabatic processes are due in part to the lack of knowledge of the tropical humidity fields. Model forecasts are very sensitive to the surface layer moisture. Krishnamurti and Oosterhof (1989) showed that models that incorporated an explicitly resolved surface layer were able to more accurately compute the strong moisture flux between the ocean and atmosphere, resulting in more accurate prediction of the formation of hurricanes. Results from the

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Scott A. Braun, Michael T. Montgomery, Kevin J. Mallen, and Paul D. Reasor

-theory surface-layer scheme ( Zhang and Anthes 1982 ; Skamarock et al. 2005 ), the Noah land surface scheme ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), the Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme ( Kain and Fritsch 1990 , 1993 ; Skamarock et al. 2005 ) on the 54- and 18-km grids only and calculated every time step, and the WRF single-moment six-class cloud microphysics ( Hong et al. 2004 ) on all grids. Radiative processes are calculated every 5 min on the 54- and 18-km grids and 2 min on the 6- and 2-km grids using the Rapid

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