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J. Brent Roberts, Franklin R. Robertson, Carol A. Clayson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

. The products capture similar patterns such as higher latent heat release over the western boundary currents, increased fluxes in the trade wind regions, and local minima over the tropical Pacific and Atlantic cold tongues. The primary differences are in magnitude. Latent heat fluxes over the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream are about 40 W m −2 lower annually than the observationally based products, whereas sensible heat fluxes are about 15 W m −2 lower. The LHF and SHF from MERRA are within 10 W m −2

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

is based on finite-volume dynamics ( Lin 2004 ) found to be effective for transport in the stratosphere (e.g., Pawson et al. 2007 ). It includes moist physics with prognostic clouds ( Bacmeister et al. 2006 ), a modified version of the relaxed Arakawa–Schubert convective scheme described by Moorthi and Suarez (1992) , the shortwave radiation scheme of Chou and Suarez (1999) , and the longwave radiation scheme of Chou et al. (2001) . Two atmospheric boundary layer turbulent mixing schemes are

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

all the data reported in TFK09 ( Table 1 ). While most reanalyses show higher oceanic evaporation than WHOI objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) on a global basis, MERRA is lower. Figure 2 shows ocean-only difference fields of surface evaporation with the OAFlux dataset ( Yu and Weller 2007 ). The systematic MERRA low bias in the extratropics apparent over the warm western boundary current regions distinguishes it from other reanalyses. This behavior has been attributed by Roberts et

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Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

assimilation system that ingests data from many modern observing systems and is expected to show advances in representing meteorological and hydrological processes over existing reanalyses ( Rienecker et al. 2008 ). MERRA is currently being used as a surrogate for the development of future Level 4 (L4) soil moisture and carbon products to be generated by the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission ( Entekhabi et al. 2010 ). The SMAP mission will provide global measurements of surface soil moisture

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Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Xubin Zeng, Michael Bosilovich, and Chung-Lin Shie

1. Introduction The atmosphere and ocean interact at their interface through surface turbulent fluxes of temperature [sensible heat (SH)], moisture [latent heat (LH)], and momentum (wind stress τ ). Knowledge of these fluxes is important to understand the ocean heat and freshwater budget and the partitioning of the global pole-to-equator heat transport between the atmosphere and the ocean. The fluxes are also needed to provide a boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean models and are

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Derek J. Posselt, Andrew R. Jongeward, Chuan-Yuan Hsu, and Gerald L. Potter

MERRA grid boxes at the nearest 3-hourly output time. To account for the possibility of movement of the analyzed cloud system, we expand the comparison region to include a one-grid-box window around each object. MERRA output directly used in our comparison includes the convective and large-scale liquid and ice mass mixing ratio, convective and large-scale cloud fraction, and downward fluxes of liquid-and-ice-phase precipitation through each layer boundary. In addition, surface pressure and skin

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David H. Bromwich, Julien P. Nicolas, and Andrew J. Monaghan

( Bosilovich et al. 2008 ). CFSR was completed in January 2010 with data currently spanning 1979–2009. It brings major improvements to NCEP-2, including higher horizontal and vertical resolutions (highest among the global reanalyses used in this study) and intensive use of satellite observations (assimilating satellite radiances instead of satellite retrievals). Similar to MERRA, atmospheric observations are assimilated via the 3DVAR GSI system. Unique among current global reanalyses, CFSR uses a coupled

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Benjamin A. Schenkel and Robert E. Hart

the current generation of reanalysis datasets using a consistent tracking methodology. The following study seeks to quantify the depiction of TC position, intensity, and the life cycle of intensity among five reanalysis datasets to determine their suitability for examining TCs. The remainder of this paper will be divided into three parts. Section 2 will detail the data and methodology used in this study. Section 3 will discuss the variability of TC position and intensity within and among

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Kyle F. Itterly and Patrick C. Taylor

data are archived at −3-, −6-, −9-, and −12-h ranges from 0000 and 1200 UTC ( Berrisford et al. 2011 ). In the current study, 3-hourly steps are used from the 0000 and 1200 UTC initialization times, resulting in 3-hourly temporal resolution. Monthly average TOA flux output from July 2002 to October 2012 is obtained from and regridded to 1° × 1° by the ECMWF servers ( ). 3. Methodology a. Diurnal cycle evaluation RMSE is used to quantitatively

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, Junye Chen, and Timothy L. Miller

a pronounced dipole structure with the positive values lying immediately to the south. In the region of negative moisture increments, boundary layer air over the cold upwelling water off the coast of South America is systematically too wet in the background field. Presumably these features indicate that the delicate interplay between subsidence drying and shallow convective moistening of the equatorward moving air masses is not handled as well in the model as it should be. Fig . 1. Time

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