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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

( Seo et al. 2007b ; http://scoar.wikispaces.com ). SCOAR currently couples one of two weather models, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model or the Regional Spectral Model ( Juang and Kanamitsu 1994 ), to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; Haidvogel et al. 2000 ; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ). This study uses the WRF-ROMS version of SCOAR, taking advantage of WRF’s latest physics options. The interacting boundary layer between WRF and ROMS is based

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

1987 ) or boundary layer frictional wave-CISK (e.g., Wang and Rui 1990 ; Salby et al. 1994 )] or by a quasi-equilibrium between circulation and radiative-convective equilibrium ( Neelin et al. 1987 ; Emanuel 1987 ; Neelin and Zeng 2000 ). Other models with nonlinear interaction of smaller-scale waves (e.g., through triggering convection) predict organization of synoptic-scale convection into a large MJO envelope ( Majda and Stechmann 2009 ; Yang and Ingersoll 2013 ). The waves predicted by

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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

, rendering the intraseasonal modes unstable. This study aims to bridge the gap between current theoretical understanding of MJO processes on the one hand and evaluation and improvement of cumulus parameterizations on the other using data collected during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment–Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ). We examine the contributions of model biases associated with the processes discussed above to

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Simon P. de Szoeke and Eric D. Maloney

, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00074.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00074.1 Sverdrup , H. U. , 1947 : Wind-driven currents in a baroclinic ocean; with application to the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 33 , 318 – 326 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.33.11.318 . 10.1073/pnas.33.11.318 Wang , B. , and T. Li , 1994 : Convective interaction with boundary-layer dynamics in the development of a tropical intraseasonal system . J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 1386

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Kai-Chih Tseng, Chung-Hsiung Sui, and Tim Li

wave dynamics with a wave–conditional instability of the second kind (wave-CISK)-type parameterization of convective heating (e.g., Lau and Peng 1987 ). The most unstable wave in such a simplified system is normally at a small wavelength, which is different from the observed planetary-scale circulation associated with MJOs. To remedy the scale selection problem, Wang (1988) and Wang and Li (1994) added friction-induced boundary layer convergence in the wave-CISK framework. In the wave

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Tim Li, Chongbo Zhao, Pang-chi Hsu, and Tomoe Nasuno

related to a preceding MJO event that circumnavigates around the global tropics (e.g., Lau and Peng 1987 ; Wang and Li 1994 ; Li and Wang 1994 ; Matthews 2000 , 2008 ) and processes due to local changes of atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) moisture, circulation and sea surface temperature ( Kemball-Cook and Weare 2001 ; Jiang and Li 2005 ; Li et al. 2008 ; Ling et al. 2013 ; Sobel et al. 2014 ; Wang et al. 2015 ), or downward influence of midtropospheric potential vorticity ( Seo

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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

variability that stems from the improved diurnal SST variability ( Bernie et al. 2007 ). These and other studies (e.g., Klingaman et al. 2011 ) concluded that a very fine vertical grid spacing, of approximately 1 m, is required in the upper layers of the ocean component to resolve the diurnal warm layer processes there. As most current ocean–atmosphere GCMs have a grid spacing on the order of 10 m and are often only coupled daily, these processes are not resolved. This leads to a degradation in the

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

convection over the eastern Pacific using 3-h satellite data, Bain et al. (2010 , 2011 ) found a diurnal pulsing in the extent of the ITCZ cloud envelope with a 15% afternoon increase along with a 1300–1600 LT minimum in IR temperatures. The results presented in the current paper are intended to complement these earlier studies by offering a unique perspective on the diurnal cycle of the ITCZ through use of 3-hourly in situ sounding observations. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the

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