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David Halpern, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Xiaochun Wang

1 Introduction The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) are major tropical ocean currents that transport warm water eastward in the uppermost 300–400 m. The EUC and NECC occur at the equator and 7.5°N, respectively, with latitudinal widths of 3° and 5°, respectively. The EUC and NECC are maintained by zonal wind stress and wind stress curl, respectively. In the Pacific Ocean, the EUC is strongly related to the onset, maintenance, and dissipation of the El

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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

Cummings and Smedstad (2013) . As configured within GOFS version 3, HYCOM has a horizontal equatorial resolution of 0.08° or ~ ° (~7-km midlatitude) resolution. This makes HYCOM eddy resolving. Eddy-resolving models can more accurately simulate western boundary currents and the associated mesoscale variability, and they better maintain more accurate and sharper ocean fronts. In particular, an eddy-resolving ocean model allows upper-ocean topographic coupling via flow instabilities, while an eddy

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