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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, and Edward Zipser

1. Introduction Deep convection plays a crucial role in moisture and heat transfer in the tropics ( Riehl and Malkus 1958 ), and is a key component in organized convective systems ( Houze 1977 , 2004 ; Houze et al. 2015 ; Zipser 1977 ). They are commonly found in various kinds of weather systems, such as squall lines, hurricanes, and monsoons ( Xu and Zipser 2012 ; Jiang et al. 2011 ; Smull and Houze 1985 ). To quantify the role of the deep convection in latent heat release, it is

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Dalia B. Kirschbaum, George J. Huffman, Robert F. Adler, Scott Braun, Kevin Garrett, Erin Jones, Amy McNally, Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Erich Stocker, Huan Wu, and Benjamin F. Zaitchik

and specific case studies can be found in Ward and Kirschbaum (2014) and Ward et al. (2015) . NASA’S PMM: BUILDING A LEGACY. TRMM was a research satellite designed to improve our understanding of the distribution and variability of precipitation at daily to yearly time scales over the tropical and subtropical regions of the Earth. It provided much-needed information on rainfall and its associated latent heat release that helps to power global atmospheric circulation and influence both weather

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Walter A. Petersen, Wesley Berg, Chris Kidd, Erich F. Stocker, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Ramesh Kakar, Scott A. Braun, George J. Huffman, Toshio Iguchi, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, Robert Meneghini, Riko Oki, William S. Olson, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kinji Furukawa, and Thomas Wilheit

The GPM mission collects essential rain and snow data for scientific studies and societal benefit. Water is essential to our planet. It literally moves mountains through erosion, transports heat in Earth’s oceans and atmosphere, keeps our planet from freezing as a result of radiative impacts of atmospheric water vapor, and causes catastrophes through droughts, floods, landslides, blizzards, and severe storms, but most importantly water is vital for nourishing all life on Earth. Precipitation as

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Toshio Iguchi, Nozomi Kawamoto, and Riko Oki

a temperature lower than 2.5 C and only a few stations reported a temperature between 2.5° and 5°C. Either snow or sleet was observed at all of the JMA’s 13 ground observatories located in the part of the main island of Japan depicted in this figure. Fig . 3. Detection of intense ice precipitation over northern Japan on 18 Jan 2016. (a) Vertical cross sections of KuPR’s (contour lines with every 2.5-dB intervals) and DFR m (color) along the brown line shown in (b) and (c). (b) Estimated radar

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Kamil Mroz, Mario Montopoli, Alessandro Battaglia, Giulia Panegrossi, Pierre Kirstetter, and Luca Baldini

latent heat flux and attributed to snowfall at high latitudes ( Stephens et al. 2012 ; L’Ecuyer et al. 2015 ). This epitomizes that accurate snowfall estimates are key to establish a baseline against which changes in Earth’s water and energy budgets can be measured. Little is also known about the impact of climate change on solid precipitation, though indications suggest that high-latitude precipitation has been increasing since the beginning of the century ( Surussavadee and Staelin 2009 ) and its

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