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James P. Lodge

, therefore,some concern that oversampling of the larger particleshad occurred. In fact, the theory of Langmuir andBlodgett (1946) indicated that 10-p particles should beoversampled with respect to 3-p particles by somethree orders of magnitude. This possibility was rejected on four counts: first, the uncorrected dataaccord generally with those of Woodcock in which thisairspeed problem did not enter ; second, the percentages of 10-p particles in the total impactor collectionson the ground and in the air

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Conrad L. Ziegler, Peter S. Ray, and Donald R. MacGorman

2098 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 43, No. 19Relations of Kinematics,Microphysics and Electrificationin an Isolated Mountain ThunderstormCONRAD L. ZIEGLER, PETER s. RAY,* AND DONALD R. MAORMAN National Severe Storms Laboralory, NOAA, Norman. OK 73069 (Manuscript received 26 August 1985, in final form 7 April 1986)ABSTRACTThis paper ad- aspects of the airflow, microphysics, and electrification in a mountain thunderstormwhich occurred on 7 August 1979 over the Langmuir

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David J. Raymond and Marvin Wilkening

. Conversely, if the surface flux is known to benegligible, the integrated value of ~qq is minus the netcondensation rate in the cloud.3. Observations The .observations described in this paper wereconducted over the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research. Langmuir Laboratory sits atop theMagdalena Mountains of west-central 'New Mexico.This forested range is aligned north-south, and isabout 20 km long by 10 km wide. It is surroundedby grasslands and low scrub of predominant elevation1800 m on the

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Per B. Storebø

, thenthe ratio between the deposited quantities of the particle types isD1 u-N,Dz b.Nbexp [ - (a - b)t].(2)_ - -.The initial deposition will consequently show an excess of the particles most easily brought down, theposition being reversed later on.This effect will not appear over an area with aclosed air-mass circulation with even or arbitrarilydistributed precipitation, because all debris broughtdown into clouds must be deposited eventually. Theair concentration of the more slowly captured

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R. A. Brown

Langmuir (1938) in his notes andobservations on Lake George. He observed and roughlymeasured helical circulations near the surface whichcorrespond to the secondary flows developed in themodel derived herein. Rolls provide a possible explanation for the long streaks common to the ocean's surface(Falter, 1965; Roll, 1965, p. 119). Hanna (1969)has suggested planetacw boundary layer rolls as the cause of thelong, parallel alignment of sand dunes in large deserts(see NASA, 1967). This paper attempts to

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E. W. Barrett and H. Riehl

. 1and shown mounted under the nose of the aircraft infig. 2. The housing was constructed to allow free circulation of air about the thermojunction while deflectingthe water droplets. In this manner the temperatureof the air might be determined without errors due tocontact of the thermocouple with large drops fallingfrom a colder region higher in the cloud.Because of the uselessness of the wet-bulb thermometer under rapidly varying hzmidity conditions,moisture measurements were made by means of

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Alfred H. Woodcock

ofamplitude H with one node at the equator. The harmonic coefficients corresponding to (7) are thereforegiven bya!' = u! + 11,a,"' =.a: (form >,O; n # i), (8)b,"' = b:.and Aleutian lows. The geostrophic circulation isaltered very little.3. Second modelIt is probably more realistic to assume that theeffect of increased solar output on the annual temperature range will be greater over the continents than overthe oceans. Since the variation of Q with longitude islargely a function of continentality, the

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B. A. Bodhaine and R. F. Pueschel

., 17, 319-328.Mendonca, B. G., 1969: Local wind circulation on the slopes ofMauna Loa. J~. Appl. Meteor., 8, 533-541. --, and W. T. Iwaoka, 1969: The trade wind inversion at the slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii. J. Appl. Meteor., 8, 213-219.Mitchell, J. M., Jr., 1970: A preliminary evaluation of atmosphericpollution as a cause of the global temperature fluctuation ofthe past century. Global Effects of t~nvlronmental Pollution,S. F. Singer, Ed., New York, Springer-Verlag, 218 pp.--, 1971: The

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J. K. Angell, D. H. Pack, and C. R. Dickson

SEPTEMBER 1968 J. K. A N G E L L, D. H. P A C K A N D C. R. D I C K S O N 707A Lagrangian Study of Helical Circulations in the Planetary Boundary Layer J. K. A~o~L~,, D. H. PACK AND C. R. DmKS0~Environmental Science Services Administration, Silver Spring, Md.(Manuscript received 11 October 1967, in revised form 30 January 1968)ABSTRACT During July 1966, nearly 100 tetroon flights were made at the National Reactor

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Tsutomu Takahashi

necessaryinitial stage in the development of precipitation. Later,Findeisen (1939) reached the same conclusion.Houghton (1950) compared the rate of mass increaseby sublimation growth of ice crystals with that due toriming and concluded that graupel is the most likelyparticle involved in producing moderate precipitation.Langmuir (1948) proposed the drop-breakup processto explain heavy rain from deep clouds. Meanwhile, pilots flying in the tropics and aware ofBergeron and Findeisen's assertion that the ice

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