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Robert J. Conzemius and Evgeni Fedorovich

for comparing the observed evolution of the sheared atmospheric CBL with large-eddy simulation (LES; Moeng and Sullivan 1994 ; Pino et al. 2003 ; Conzemius and Fedorovich 2006a ). The primary goals of the study are twofold. First, we intend to evaluate LES predictions of the sheared CBL growth against lidar observations of CBL depth evolution and compare LES output with radiometer, radar, and radiosonde data to more fully understand the evolution of the mean wind and temperature in the CBL

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Lindsay J. Bennett, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Alan M. Blyth, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, and Yvette P. Richardson

studies showing horizontal maps of the moisture in the CBL from an airborne water vapor lidar. The structure of the paper is as follows. The layout and description of instrumentation are described in section 2 and the general meteorological situation in section 3 . Observations of the evolution of the early morning boundary layer are presented in section 4 , the development of the convective boundary layer in section 5 , and the characteristics of the open cells in section 6 . A summary of the

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Edward I. Tollerud, Fernando Caracena, Steven E. Koch, Brian D. Jamison, R. Michael Hardesty, Brandi J. McCarty, Christoph Kiemle, Randall S. Collander, Diana L. Bartels, Steven Albers, Brent Shaw, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, and W. Alan Brewer

-magnitude moisture flux layer and overestimates the flux values very near the surface. The set of moisture flux cross sections along the northern flight leg in Figs. 6 and 7 also display quite similar jet features. The section in Fig. 6 has been produced from the dropsonde profiles performed along the leg, whereas the section in Fig. 7 is constructed from lidar observations. Apart from the obvious increase in detail in the lidar section, the two sections are similar in jet magnitude and placement along

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F. Couvreux, F. Guichard, P. H. Austin, and F. Chen

layer. Boundary layer heights are derived from reflectivity profiles measured by the lidar on board the DLR-Falcon, following Davis et al. (2000) . The precipitation field is provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) stage IV rainfall product, at 4-km resolution, which combines Oklahoma Mesonet rain gauge observations and hourly precipitation radar data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) installed on Terra , a sun-synchronous polar

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Robin L. Tanamachi, Wayne F. Feltz, and Ming Xue

boundary weakened in intensity as it propagated south and west from MCS1, but it is believed to have reached the Homestead site around 0800 UTC, approximately 1 h after RDE A. As will be seen in section 3 , this boundary was so weak as to be barely detectable in surface observations at the time it passed the Homestead site. At 0816 UTC, a second, southward-moving outflow boundary from MCS2 was apparent about 10 km south of Dodge City in WSR-88D imagery ( Fig. 4 ). From an isochronal analysis of the

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Steven E. Koch, Wayne Feltz, Frédéric Fabry, Mariusz Pagowski, Bart Geerts, Kristopher M. Bedka, David O. Miller, and James W. Wilson

between S-Pol radar refractivity and that derived from fixed and mobile mesonet observations within a 40-km range of the radar. They also showed that gradients in the S-Pol refractivity field could detect low-level boundaries prior to their appearance in radar reflectivity imagery. Another system used in this study was the vertically pointing, frequency modulation–continuous wave (FM-CW) radar from the University of Massachusetts ( İnce et al. 2003 ). The chosen FM-CW transmitter frequencies and

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