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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

additional mechanisms supporting InPen. At the same time, our results indicate the importance of a favorable thermodynamic environment—especially a deep CBL—to InPen 20 . 2) Inland plume-focusing hypothesis A second hypothesis for InPen is that InPen is enhanced when the plume of buoyancy and moisture associated with the LLAP band is focused into a narrow ribbon downwind of the parent lake. This inland plume-focusing hypothesis follows the experience of operational forecasters as reported in Niziol et

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Seth Saslo and Steven J. Greybush

. Kadowaki , 2010 : Ensemble Kalman filter and 4D-Var intercomparison with the Japanese operational global analysis and prediction system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 138 , 2846 – 2866 , doi: 10.1175/2010MWR3209.1 . 10.1175/2010MWR3209.1 Niziol , T. A. , 1987 : Operation forecasting of lake effect snowfall in western and central New York . Wea. Forecasting , 2 , 310 – 321 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1987)002<0310:OFOLES>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1987)002<0310:OFOLES>2.0.CO;2 Niziol , T. A. , W. R

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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

cover all periods with dominant bands in OWLeS with the exception of the 15–16 December 2013 storm. Following the identification of these time periods, reanalysis simulations were generated for each period with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). These reanalyses were generated by assimilating hourly in situ observations (e.g., operational surface, aircraft, and radiosonde data were assimilated; radar reflectivities and OWLeS field observations were not

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