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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

temperatures and, as CM3, in coupled mode. The inclusion of aerosol–cloud interactions in CM3 links cloud radiative properties to aerosols, whose optical properties and direct effects on shortwave radiation agree better with observations than in CM2. CM3’s simulation of the increase in global-mean surface temperature from 1880–1920 to 1980–2000 is smaller than observed. The corresponding CM2 simulated increase is larger than observed. The magnitude of CM3’s underestimate is about 0.1°C larger than the CM2

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

scale. It predicts the number of activated cloud drops based on aerosol properties and supersaturation following the Köhler theory. The dependence on supersaturation is often recast in terms of cloud updraft velocity as proposed by Twomey (1959) . We define a gridbox activation parameterization as a local parameterization that has been modified for GCM application. We call “subgrid assumptions” the set of assumptions used to convert a local parameterization into a gridbox parameterization. Subgrid

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