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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

climatological wind stress was averaged over the entire time period of 2007–18. d. The LICOM ocean model The LASG/IAP Climate Ocean Model (LICOM) version 1.0 developed by the Institute of Atmosphere Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was used to evaluate the influence of equatorial waves on the NESC. The model has a horizontal resolution of 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude and 30 vertical levels of varying thickness from 12.5 to 5319.1 m. A 900-yr spinup was forced with the climatological forcing of

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

, and larger heights than other vegetation types. Therefore, converting rain forest into bare ground or grassland has three major effects on land surface conditions: 1) a reduction in evapotranspiration, 2) an increase in surface albedo, and 3) a decrease in surface roughness. The reduction in evapotranspiration decreases the surface latent heat flux and leads to a surface warming effect. The decrease in roughness reduces the aerodynamic exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. Furthermore

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. It can be described as a tropical planetary-scale circulation system coupled with a multiscale convective complex and propagating eastward slowly with a rearward tilted vertical structure and a mixed Kelvin–Rossby wave horizontal structure ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ; Wang 2012 ). The planetary

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

according to its convective anomaly, its intraseasonal temporal scale and global spatial scale are substantially greater than that of typical mesoscale convective anomalies. How important are mesoscale deep convective structures to the description of the MJO? Do mesoscale convective structures interact cross scale with the planetary-scale structure of the MJO? These questions have been topics of research for decades, and as computational and observational capabilities have improved over recent years

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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

characterized by a zonally planetary length scale with global wavenumber 1–2 ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Li and Zhou 2009 ), a Kelvin wave and Rossby wave couplet pattern ( Rui and Wang 1990 ; Wang and Li 1994 ; Li and Wang 1994 ; Adames and Wallace 2014 ), and a vertically tilted structure in vertical velocity and moisture fields ( Sperber 2003 ; Hsu and Li 2012 ). Table 1. List of acronyms. Most MJO events initiate in the west Indian Ocean ( Matthews 2008 ; Zhao et al. 2013 ; Straub 2013 ), weaken over

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Jieshun Zhu, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal climate variability in the boreal winter and spring ( Madden and Julian 1971 ; Zhang 2005 ). It manifests as a planetary-scale system with organized multiscale convection and large-scale circulation and is featured by its eastward propagation along the equator. During a typical MJO event, a positive convection/rainfall anomaly develops over the western Indian Ocean, while convection tends to be

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

passage of the MJO. They partitioned the heating into convective, stratiform, and radiative components, and found that with the onset of the MJO, the stratiform rainfall anomalies lagged the convective anomalies by a few days. In most numerical weather or climate models, the diabatic heating is calculated as an explicit potential temperature tendency. Depending on the formulation of the model, the heating will arise from the microphysics scheme, the cumulus scheme, the planetary boundary layer scheme

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

, and mountain/valley winds, the simulations also included planetary-scale variability because of the large domain size and because the atmosphere was nudged toward to the ERA-Interim above the boundary layer for wavelengths longer than 1000 km. Comparison of precipitation fields from the WRF Model with the satellite precipitation products TRMM and CMORPH revealed consistent patterns in the variation of rain rate with the MJO, time of day, and proximity to coastlines and topography, despite a

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

envelope of MJO events as “building blocks” ( Nakazawa 1988 ; Majda et al. 2004 ; Mapes et al. 2006 ; Gottschalck et al. 2013 ) or become active as an independent mode ( Dunkerton and Crum 1995 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). Significant ocean–atmosphere interactions can occur during the passage of the KWs ( Baranowski et al. 2016a ). The KWs can significantly modulate the tropical convection on synoptic scales (e.g., Takayabu 1991 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Wang and Fu

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

structure of the atmosphere between the various 4-km runs with the purpose of putting forward a physical interpretation of the impacts from the convection representation. a. Precipitation The domain-average mean precipitation is a first-order measure of the model water balance physical realism. Figure 2a shows the domain-averaged precipitation mean from the various observations and all model simulations for the 2015–16 austral summer. According to these results, the model is overall well calibrated

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