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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Adam H. Sobel, Janet Sprintall, Eric D. Maloney, Zane K. Martin, Shuguang Wang, Simon P. de Szoeke, Benjamin C. Trabing, and Steven A. Rutledge

( Fairall et al. 1996 ). Downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiative fluxes were measured by radiometers on the ship. Upwelling radiative fluxes from the surface were modeled using a constant emissivity (0.97) and the Payne (1972) ocean surface albedo parameterization. Precipitation rate is measured with an Optical Scientific, Inc. optical rain gauge. Most meteorological variables were sampled each second, quality controlled, and then averaged to 10-min means. Oceanic temperature and salinity

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

layer, for example, can drop by two orders of magnitude from their nighttime values ( Brainerd and Gregg 1993 ; Moulin et al. 2018 ). Under stronger winds, DWLs are less surface intensified and their associated SST anomalies are smaller because shear-induced mixing enhances heat transfer away from the surface. Indeed, heat flux and the turbulence induced by shear are closely related, so parameterizing heat transfer will require knowledge of DWL-induced shear. For example, Sutherland et al. (2016

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

McFarlane 1995 ; Neale et al. 2008 ), the double-moment microphysics scheme ( Morrison and Gettelman 2008 ; Gettelman et al. 2010 ), the diagnostic cloud fraction (macrophysics) scheme ( Park et al. 2014 ), the shallow convection scheme ( Park and Bretherton 2009 ), the moist turbulence scheme ( Bretherton and Park 2009 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), and the modal aerosol model ( Liu et al. 2012 ). The 3-day-long hindcasts were initialized at 0000 UTC

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

most important for driving the aggregation of water vapor anomalies. Another interesting avenue for future research could be to expand or shift the simulation domain to test whether a similar relationship holds across the rest of the Indo-Pacific region. Additional upscale influences may arise from cloud-radiative feedbacks, since changes in the distribution of cloud have been shown to impact the propagation and intensity of the intraseasonal structure of the MJO ( Flatau et al. 1997 ; Arnold and

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