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Robert Wood

scattering approximations can be made to the radiative transfer equation ( King and Harshvardhan 1986 has a comparison of approaches), which yields useful analytical expressions that are quite accurate [e.g., albedo α = τ /( τ + 7); Seinfeld and Pandis 1997 ]. Fig . 20. Broadband solar albedo (at the top of the atmosphere) for an adiabatic plane–parallel liquid water cloud with a cloud droplet concentration of N d = 100 cm −3 as a function of the cloud LWP and the solar zenith angle (shaded

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T. N. Krishnamurti

symmetric monsoon in a generalcirculation model. The model included oceans to thesouth, and land areas with mountains to the north.Other features were air-sea interaction, convective adjustment, detailed radiative processes and large scalecondensation. With the inclusion of mountains and amean July solar insolation input the model simulateda realistic monsoon including such features as: themonsoon trough, monsoon rainfall, warm troposphere,tropical easterly jet, strong Hadley circulation andlower

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Craig S. Schwartz and Ryan A. Sobash

. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 673 – 689 , doi: 10.1002/qj.769 . 10.1002/qj.769 Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD009944 . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Janjić , Z. I. , 1994 : The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

rotation and the sphericity of Earth [for an introductory-level text on Rossby waves see Rhines (2002) ]. Rossby waves are in distinct contrast to other types of waves such as gravity waves or sound waves, which rely on gravity or the compressibility of air, respectively, for their basic restoring mechanism. The atmospheric general circulation cannot be understood without reference to Rossby waves because they transfer energy, moisture, and momentum across large distances. This can generate

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

: Entropy budget of an atmosphere in radiative–convective equilibrium. Part I: Maximum work and frictional dissipation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 59 , 125 – 139 ,<0125:EBOAAI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0125:EBOAAI>2.0.CO;2 Pincus , R. , H. W. Barker , and J.-J. Morcrette , 2003 : A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud fields . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4376 ,

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

particles are transferred to the grid scale.Thus, the presence of cumulus parameterization plusnonconvective microphysical equations alone is insufficient. For example, Zhang and Gao (1989) use theFritsch-Chappell (1980) cumulus parameterization atunstable grid points, plus rather detailed microphysicalforecast equations at stable grid points or upon supersaturation. This qualifies as a traditional approach because the cumulus parameterization does not supplyexplicit precipitation particles to the grid

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