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Rob Stoll and Fernando Porté-Agel

surface heterogeneity effects have either focused on the structure of stable internal boundary layers (e.g., Smedman et al. 1997 ; Mahrt et al. 2004 ; Skyllingstad et al. 2005 , 2007 ) or used numerical mesoscale simulations to look at surface heterogeneity in the SBL at scales on the order of 100 km ( Mahrt 1987 ; McCabe and Brown 2007 ). In a related study, Acevedo and Fitzjarrald (2001) used the large-eddy simulation technique to examine the significance of heterogeneous topography on the

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Sergey Malyshev, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Stephen W. Pacala

changes in near-surface climate (i.e., biophysical effect). While globally these biophysical effects of LULCC are thought to be small ( Findell et al. 2007 ), regionally they play an important role ( Pitman et al. 2009 ; Findell et al. 2009 ; Lawrence and Chase 2010 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ). Additionally, land-use activities alter the amount of carbon stored in the terrestrial ecosystem ( Ciais et al. 2013 ) and therefore contribute to the change of atmospheric CO 2 (i.e., biogeochemical

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Soon-Hwan Lee and Hae-Dong Kim

occur not only in coastal areas but also in inland basins in east Asia, especially in China, Japan, and Korea. However, regional circulation in an inland basin tends to be complicated because the effects of topographic and urban heat islands function simultaneously. The importance of topographic effects on local circulation has been demonstrated in previous studies ( Kimura and Arakawa 1983 ; Kondo et al. 1989 ; Kuwagata et al. 1990 ; Daul and Pielke 1993 ; Kimura and Kuwagata 1993 ; Lee and

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Hyodae Seo, Shang-Ping Xie, Raghu Murtugudde, Markus Jochum, and Arthur J. Miller

can cause climate biases through multiple feedback processes in coupled climate models ( Lin 2007 ). A better assessment of the impact of BLs on climate requires an intercomparison exercise using the results from those climate models with and without the salinity and BL effects. These kinds of studies will help determine the extent to which common biases in the climate models can be attributed to BL errors. It will also help detect common and robust features of the sensitivity of the regional

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Z. Long, W. Perrie, J. Gyakum, D. Caya, and R. Laprise

. , and Hostetler S. W. , 1993 : Toward the simulation of the effects of the Great Lakes on regional climate. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 1373 – 1387 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<1373:TTSOTE>2.0.CO;2 Beletsky, D. , and Schwab D. J. , 2001 : Modeling circulation and thermal structure in Lake Michigan: Annual cycle and interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 19745 – 19771 . 10.1029/2000JC000691 Blanken, P. D. , Rouse W. R. , and Schertzer W. M. , 2003 : Enhancement of

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Axel Timmermann, Shayne McGregor, and Fei-Fei Jin

project into the next decades. The goal of our paper is to elucidate the effects of long-term wind changes on the regional characteristics of past and future sea level trends in the tropical southern Indo-Pacific region and to compare these regional projections with recent estimates of global mean future sea level rise. The paper is organized as follows. In section 2 we describe the simplified modeling approach applied to recent wind data and future wind projections from IPCC-type models to quantify

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Jinlin Zha, Cheng Shen, Deming Zhao, Jinming Feng, Zhongfeng Xu, Jian Wu, Wenxuan Fan, Meng Luo, and Liya Zhang

patterns is indicative of the complexity of the remote circulations associated with variability in SSAT over Asia. The interactions and modulations among the different LOACs are complex ( Wang et al. 2004 ; Deser et al. 2012a ), so it is difficult to isolate and quantify the contributions of the different LOACs to temperature changes at regional scale. In addition to the effects of ICV, the changes in external forcing (EF) also exert an important effect on SSAT changes over East Asia. Increasing

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Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

at a rate of 46.5 mm decade −1 ( Zhu et al. 2019 ). Therefore, the effects of TP lakes and their changes on local and regional climate are worth characterizing and quantifying. Due to their wide distribution and ability to modulate energy and water transfer, TP lakes are likely to affect TP precipitation at diurnal and seasonal scales. TP precipitation is generated mainly by small (<100 km 2 ) and medium (100–10 000 km 2 ) convective systems ( Hirose and Nakamura 2005 ) and characterized by a

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Tanya L. Otte, Christopher G. Nolte, Martin J. Otte, and Jared H. Bowden

may not accurately represent local changes in temperature and precipitation extremes ( Dulière et al. 2011 ; Werth and Garrett 2011 ). To predict the local effects of climate change, the GCM fields can be projected to local scales using a regional climate model (RCM) by applying dynamical downscaling techniques (e.g., Giorgi 1990 ). The RCM may then be used to inform problem-focused climate assessments that address community goals and values ( Tryhorn and DeGaetano 2011 ). To interpret climate

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Guoyu Ren, Yaqing Zhou, Ziying Chu, Jiangxing Zhou, Aiying Zhang, Jun Guo, and Xuefeng Liu

urbanization effect reached 71%. If only the Beijing station is considered, the contribution of urban warming to the overall warming is as large as 80% ( Ren et al. 2007 ). However, Li et al. (2004) indicated a much weaker urban warming in some regions and the country as a whole by comparing SAT trends between rural and urban stations. It is clear that the issue of the possible influence of UHI effects on the present available global and regional mean SAT series has not yet been solved. Chinese

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