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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

accumulation in Asia during the mid-Holocene and at the Last Glacial Maximum. Global Planet. Change , 32 , 331 – 347 . Bush , A. B. G. , 2007 : Extratropical influence of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation through the late Quaternary. J. Climate , 20 , 788 – 800 . Bush , A. B. G. , and S. G. H. Philander , 1998 : The role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in tropical cooling during the last glacial maximum. Science , 279 , 1341 – 1344 . Bush , A. B. G. , and S. G. H. Philander , 1999

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

may be transmitted meridionally into the tropics and zonally to other midlatitude locations. In particular, we will focus upon the impact of changes in AMOC on one of the main modes of interannual global climate variability, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. ENSO, a coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamical process, is characterized by enhanced spectral variability of Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) with a time scale of 2–7 yr (for a recent review of the phenomenon itself, see

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

estimate. The model reproduces qualitatively and quantitatively most features of the observation-based patterns of air–sea exchange of CO 2 ( Fig. 2 ). These features include outgassing in low latitudes with a maximum in the eastern tropical Pacific and uptake at mid- and high latitudes with maxima around 40°N–S in the areas of the North Atlantic Current, the Kuroshio Current, and the Southern Ocean. Model biases include underestimated uptake in the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian Seas and overestimated

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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

mention. First, around Antarctica, there is increased bottom-water formation, driven by increases in sea ice. The enhanced vertical mixing associated with this leads to a more homogeneous water column, and lower buoyancy frequencies. Second, in the Greenland Sea and Arctic Ocean, the buoyancy frequency is higher than at present. This again appears to be driven by enhanced sea ice formation, which leads to an accumulation of salt in the deep Arctic Ocean. Unlike the Southern Hemisphere, this salty

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 15111 – 15128 . Fleitmann , D. , S. J. Burns , M. Mudelsee , U. Neff , J. Kramers , A. Maginin , and A. Matter , 2003 : Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science , 300 , 1737 – 1739 . Goosse , H. , H. Renssen , F. M. Selten , R. J. Haarsma , and J. D. Opsteegh , 2002 : Potential causes of abrupt climate events: A numerical study with a three

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

decadal variability ( Latif and Barnett 1996 ) superimposed on a lower-frequency modulation ( Minobe 1997 ; d’Orgeville and Peltier 2007 ), consisting of periods of stable sign separated by abrupt sign reversals as, for instance, in the case of the well-known 1976/77 climate shift ( Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ; Latif and Barnett 1996 ). The PDO has been shown to have an impact on North American climate ( Zhang et al. 1997 ), and to modulate the effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

circulation variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM. J. Climate , 18 , 1117 – 1135 . Dong , B. , R. T. Sutton , and A. A. Scaife , 2006 : Multidecadal modulation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variance by Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L08705 . doi:10.1029/2006GL025766 . d’Orgeville , M. , and W. R. Peltier , 2007 : On the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: Might they be related? Geophys. Res

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Martin Sharp and Libo Wang

1. Introduction Since the early 1990s there has been a sharp increase in the rate of global sea level rise, from a post-1961 average of 1.8 ± 0.5 mm yr −1 to a post 1993 average of 3.1 ± 0.7 mm yr −1 ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). Recent estimates suggest that ocean warming accounts for about 1.6 ± 0.5 mm yr −1 of the post-1993 rate, and that wastage of small glaciers and ice caps accounts for about 60% of the remainder ( Meier et al. 2007 ). The rate of glacier and ice cap wastage has increased

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Alex S. Gardner, Martin J. Sharp, Roy M. Koerner, Claude Labine, Sarah Boon, Shawn J. Marshall, David O. Burgess, and David Lewis

1. Introduction Mass loss from glaciers and ice caps is likely the second largest contribution to global sea level rise after ocean thermal expansion ( Meier et al. 2007 ). Quantifying past contributions from this source is challenging because of the limited availability of measurements of glacier surface mass balance and rates of iceberg calving. Glacier surface mass balance models are widely used to compensate for this lack of measurements and can be used to predict how climate change will

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A. E. Viau and K. Gajewski

four sites from southern British Columbia available in the database, so the Mackenzie region primarily contains sites from the Yukon and upper Mackenzie valley; that is, the boreal portion of this region. This desire for objective site selection with no exclusion means that our analysis includes one site on Baffin Island and another from West Greenland from the Arctic zone. At each site, January and July temperature and annual precipitation were estimated from the fossil pollen records using the

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