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H. F. Dacre, P. A. Clark, O. Martinez-Alvarado, M. A. Stringer, and D. A. Lavers

formation of high TCWV bands in the atmosphere. This is achieved by calculating the water vapor budget for each cyclone in a frame of reference that moves with the cyclone. This allows us to determine how processes leading to the formation of atmospheric rivers evolve as the cyclone develops. Furthermore, tracking the cyclones relative to their time of maximum intensity allows us to composite the water vapor budget for a whole climatology of cyclones and thus generalize our results beyond individual

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

Kingdom, northern Europe, and Scandinavia. Heavy precipitation can have an important societal impact, as it can lead to extreme weather events, such as flash flooding. Water vapor condensation in the rising air also releases latent heat, which typically intensifies the ascending motion and the cyclone near the surface (e.g., Tracton 1973 ; Davis 1992 ; Stoelinga 1996 ; Ahmadi-Givi et al. 2004 ; Grams et al. 2011 ). For example, studying a cyclone that reached its maximum intensity (based on mean

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

mature cyclones it wraps around the west and then equatorward flank where it provides a wind component aligned with the system motion and therefore strong ground-relative winds. A key aspect of the CCB is that the wind maximum is near the top of the boundary layer and slopes radially outwards with height on the cold side of the bent-back front, as would be expected from gradient thermal wind balance. The term “sting jet” was introduced by Browning (2004) (see also Clark et al. 2005 ) to describe

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