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J. Paul Spence, Michael Eby, and Andrew J. Weaver

1. Introduction Variation in the poleward transport of heat by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is commonly evoked as a mechanism to explain large-scale climate events found in paleorecords ( Bond et al. 1993 ; Rahmstorf 2002 ). A wide range of modeling studies have demonstrated a weakened AMOC in response to surface freshwater forcing at North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation sites (e.g., Stommel 1961 ; Weaver and Hughes 1992 ; Stouffer et al. 2006 ); specifically

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

the deep water formation (DWF) region of the Labrador Sea ( Weaver et al. 2007 ). However, that study was based on a model of intermediate complexity in which significant low-frequency North Atlantic (MOC) variability did not exist. In d’Orgeville and Peltier (2009 , hereafter Part I) , it was demonstrated that the North Pacific decadal variability was significantly influenced by strong greenhouse gas warming. In the North Atlantic also, as in the North Pacific, the spatial structure of the

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